skip to main content

Title: Successive common envelope events from multiple planets
ABSTRACT Many stars harbour multiplanet systems. As these stars expand late in their evolutions, the innermost planet may be engulfed, leading to a common envelope (CE) event. Even if this is insufficient to eject the envelope, it may expand the star further, causing additional CE events, with the last one unbinding what remains of the envelope. This multiplanet CE scenario may have broad implications for stellar and planetary evolution across a range of systems. We develop a simplified version and show that it may be able to explain the recently observed planet WD 1856 b.
Authors:
; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1813298 2020249
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10269424
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters
Volume:
502
Issue:
1
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
L110 to L114
ISSN:
1745-3925
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. ABSTRACT

    Exoplanetary observations reveal that the occurrence rate of hot Jupiters is correlated with star clustering. In star clusters, interactions between planetary systems and close flyby stars can significantly change the architecture of primordially coplanar, circular planetary systems. Flybys can impact hot Jupiter formation via activation of high-eccentricity excitation mechanisms such as the Zeipel–Lidov–Kozai (ZLK) effect and planet–planet scattering. Previous studies have shown that, for a two-planet system, close flybys, especially at high incidence angles, can efficiently activate the ZLK mechanism, thus triggering high-eccentricity tidal migration and ultimately form hot Jupiters. Here, we extend our previous study with a multiplanet (triple) system. We perform high-precision, high-accuracy few-body simulations of stellar flybys and subsequent planetary migration within the perturbed planetary systems using the code spacehub. Our simulations demonstrate that a single close flyby on a multiplanet system can activate secular chaos and ultimately lead to hot Jupiter formation via high-eccentricity migration. We find that the hot Jupiter formation rate per system increases with both the size of the planetary system and the mass of the outer planet, and we quantify the relative formation fractions for a range of parameters. Hot Jupiters formed via secular chaos are expected to be accompanied bymore »massive companions with very long periods. Our study further shows that flyby-induced secular chaos is preferred in low-density clusters where multiplanet systems are more likely to survive, and that it contributes a significant fraction of hot Jupiter formation in star clusters compared to the flyby-induced ZLK mechanism.

    « less
  2. ABSTRACT Studies of T Tauri discs inform planet formation theory; observations of variability due to occultation by circumstellar dust are a useful probe of unresolved, planet-forming inner discs, especially around faint M dwarf stars. We report observations of 2M0632, an M dwarf member of the Carina young moving group that was observed by Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite over two 1-yr intervals. The combined light curve contains >300 dimming events, each lasting a few hours, and as deep as 40 per cent (0.55 magnitudes). These stochastic events are correlated with a distinct, stable 1.86-d periodic signal that could be stellar rotation. Concurrent ground-based, multiband photometry show reddening consistent with interstellar medium-like dust. The star’s excess emission in the infrared and emission lines in optical and infrared spectra reveal a T Tauri-like accretion disc around the star. We confirm membership of 2M0632 in the Carina group by a Bayesian analysis of its Galactic space motion and position. We combine stellar evolution models with Gaia photometry and constraints on Teff, luminosity, and the absence of detectable lithium in the photosphere to constrain the age of the group and 2M0632 to 40–60 Myr, consistent with earlier estimates. 2M0632 joins a handful of long-lived discs which challenge themore »canon that disc lifetimes are ≲10 Myr. All known examples surround M dwarfs, suggesting that lower X-ray/ultraviolet irradiation and slower photoevaporation by these stars can dramatically affect disc evolution. The multiplanet systems spawned by long-lived discs probably experienced significant orbital damping and migration into close-in, resonant orbits, and perhaps represented by the TRAPPIST-1 system.« less
  3. We discuss the central role that dust condensation plays in shaping the observational appearance of outflows from coalescing binary systems. As binaries enter into a common envelope phase or merger, they shock-heat and expel material into their surroundings. Depending on the properties of the merging system, this material can expand to the point where molecules and dust form, dramatically increasing the gas opacity. We use the existing population of Luminous Red Novae (LRNe) to constrain the thermodynamics of these ejecta, then apply our findings to the progressive obscuration of merging systems in the lead in to their coalescence. Compact progenitor stars near the main sequence or in the Hertzsprung gap along with massive progenitor stars have sufficiently hot circumstellar material to remain unobscured by dust. By contrast, more extended, low-mass giants should become completely optically obscured by dust formation in the circumbinary environment. We predict that approximately half of stellar merger and common envelope transients for solar-mass stars will be dusty, infrared-luminous sources. The dusty, infrared transients will selectively trace the population of systems that may successfully eject their common envelopes, while the unobscured, optical transients correspond to the LRNe population of stellar mergers.
  4. Abstract Multiplanetary systems are prevalent in our Galaxy. The long-term stability of such systems may be disrupted if a distant inclined companion excites the eccentricity and inclination of the inner planets via the eccentric Kozai–Lidov mechanism. However, the star–planet and the planet–planet interactions can help stabilize the system. In this work, we extend the previous stability criterion that only considered the companion–planet and planet–planet interactions by also accounting for short-range forces or effects, specifically, relativistic precession induced by the host star. A general analytical stability criterion is developed for planetary systems with N inner planets and a relatively distant inclined perturber by comparing precession rates of relevant dynamical effects. Furthermore, we demonstrate as examples that in systems with two and three inner planets, the analytical criterion is consistent with numerical simulations using a combination of Gauss’s averaging method and direct N -body integration. Finally, the criterion is applied to observed systems, constraining the orbital parameter space of a possible undiscovered companion. This new stability criterion extends the parameter space in which an inclined companion of multiplanet systems can inhabit.
  5. ABSTRACT

    The formation pathways for gravitational-wave merger sources are predicted to include common envelope (CE) evolution. Observations of high-mass post-common envelope binaries suggest that energy transfer to the envelope during the CE phase must be highly efficient. In contrast, observations of low-mass post-CE binaries indicate that energy transfer during the CE phase must be highly inefficient. Convection, a process present in low-mass and high-mass stars naturally explains this dichotomy. Using observations of Wolf–Rayet binaries, we study the effects of convection and radiative losses on the predicted final separations of high-mass common envelopes. Despite robust convection in massive stars, the effect is minimal as the orbit decays well before convection can transport the liberated orbital energy to the surface. In low-mass systems, convective transport occurs faster then the orbit decays, allowing the system to radiatively cool, thereby lowering the efficiency. The inclusion of convection reproduces observations of low-mass and high-mass binaries and remains a necessary ingredient for determining outcomes of common envelopes.