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  1. Abstract

    We construct models for Jupiter’s interior that match the gravity data obtained by the Juno and Galileo spacecraft. To generate ensembles of models, we introduce a novelquadraticMonte Carlo technique, which is more efficient in confining fitness landscapes than the affine invariant method that relies on linear stretch moves. We compare how long it takes the ensembles of walkers in both methods to travel to the most relevant parameter region. Once there, we compare the autocorrelation time and error bars of the two methods. For a ring potential and the 2d Rosenbrock function, we find that our quadratic Monte Carlo technique is significantly more efficient. Furthermore, we modified thewalkmoves by adding a scaling factor. We provide the source code and examples so that this method can be applied elsewhere. Here we employ our method to generate five-layer models for Jupiter’s interior that include winds and a prominent dilute core, which allows us to match the planet’s even and odd gravity harmonics. We compare predictions from the different model ensembles and analyze how much an increase in the temperature at 1 bar and ad hoc change to the equation of state affect the inferred amount of heavy elements in the atmosphere and in the planet overall.

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    The spin evolution of main-sequence stars has long been of interest for basic stellar evolution, stellar ageing, stellar activity, and consequent influence on companion planets. Observations of older-than-solar late-type main-sequence stars have been interpreted to imply that a change from a dipole-dominated magnetic field to one with more prominent higher multipoles might be necessary to account for the data. The spin-down models that lead to this inference are essentially tuned to the Sun. Here, we take a different approach that considers individual stars as fixed points rather than just the Sun. We use a time-dependent theoretical model to solve for the spin evolution of low-mass main-sequence stars that includes a Parker-type wind and a time-evolving magnetic field coupled to the spin. Because the wind is exponentially sensitive to the stellar mass over radius and the coronal base temperature, the use of each observed star as a separate fixed point is more appropriate and, in turn, produces a set of solution curves that produces a solution envelope rather than a simple line. This envelope of solution curves, unlike a single line fit, is consistent with the data and does not unambiguously require a modal transition in the magnetic field to explain it.

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  3. Abstract

    Advent of satellite altimetry brought into focus the pervasiveness of mesoscale eddies$${{{{{{{\bf{{{{{{{{\mathcal{O}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}({100})$$O(100)km in size, which are the ocean’s analogue of weather systems and are often regarded as the spectral peak of kinetic energy (KE). Yet, understanding of the ocean’s spatial scales has been derived mostly from Fourier analysis in small representative” regions that cannot capture the vast dynamic range at planetary scales. Here, we use a coarse-graining method to analyze scales much larger than what had been possible before. Spectra spanning over three decades of length-scales reveal the Antarctic Circumpolar Current as the spectral peak of the global extra-tropical circulation, at ≈ 104km, and a previously unobserved power-law scaling over scales larger than 103km. A smaller spectral peak exists at ≈ 300 km associated with mesoscales, which, due to their wider spread in wavenumber space, account for more than 50% of resolved surface KE globally. Seasonal cycles of length-scales exhibit a characteristic lag-time of ≈ 40 days per octave of length-scales such that in both hemispheres, KE at 102km peaks in spring while KE at 103km peaks in late summer. These results provide a new window for understanding the multiscale oceanic circulation within Earth’s climate system, including the largest planetary scales.

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    It has long been speculated that jet feedback from accretion on to the companion during a common envelope (CE) event could affect the orbital evolution and envelope unbinding process. We present global 3D hydrodynamical simulations of CE evolution (CEE) that include a jet subgrid model and compare them with an otherwise identical model without a jet. Our binary consists of a 2-M⊙ red giant branch primary and a 1- or 0.5-M⊙ main sequence (MS) or white dwarf (WD) secondary companion modelled as a point particle. We run the simulations for 10 orbits (40 d). Our jet model adds mass at a constant rate $\dot{M}_\mathrm{j}$ of the order of the Eddington rate, with maximum velocity vj of the order of the escape speed, to two spherical sectors with the jet axis perpendicular to the orbital plane. We explore the influence of the jet on orbital evolution, envelope morphology and envelope unbinding, and assess the dependence of the results on the jet mass-loss rate, launch speed, companion mass, opening angle, and accretion rate. In line with our theoretical estimates, jets are choked around the time of first periastron passage and remain choked thereafter. Subsequent to choking, but not before, jets efficiently transfer energy to bound envelope material. This leads to increases in unbound mass of up to $\sim 10{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$, as compared to the simulations without jets. We also estimate the cumulative effects of jets over a full CE phase, finding that jets launched by MS and WD companions are unlikely to dominate envelope unbinding.

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  5. Abstract

    Impact-induced mixing between bolide and target is fundamental to the geochemical evolution of a growing planet, yet aside from local mixing due to jetting – associated with large angles of incidence between impacting surfaces – mixing during planetary impacts is poorly understood. Here we describe a dynamic instability of the surface between impacting materials, showing that a region of mixing grows between two media having even minimal initial topography. This additional cause of impact-induced mixing is related to Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI), and results from pressure perturbations amplified by shock-wave refraction through the corrugated interface between impactor and target. However, unlike RMI, this new impact-induced instability appears even if the bodies are made of the same material. Hydrocode simulations illustrate the growth of this mixing zone for planetary impacts, and predict results suitable for experimental validation in the laboratory. This form of impact mixing may be relevant to the formation of stony-iron and other meteorites.

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  6. We explore the structural properties of Mg, MgO, and MgSiO3 liquids from ab initio computer simulations at conditions that are relevant for the interiors of giant planets, stars, shock compression measurements, and inertial confinement fusion experiments. Using path-integral Monte Carlo and density functional theory molecular dynamics, we derive the equation of state of magnesium-rich liquids in the regime of condensed and warm dense matter, with densities ranging from 0.32 to 86.11 g cm−3 and temperatures from 20,000 K to 5 × 108 K. We study the electronic structure of magnesium as a function of density and temperature and the correlations of the atomic motion, finding an unexpected local maximum in the pair correlation functions that emerges at high densities which decreases the coordination number of elemental magnesium and reveals a higher packing. This phenomenon is not observed in other magnesium liquids, which maintain a rather constant coordination number. 
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