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Title: Design and Assessment of Innovative Dual-Mode Rolling Isolation Systems
Loss of operation or devastating damage to buildings and industrial structures, as well as equipment housed in them, has been observed due to earthquake-induced vibrations. A common source of operational downtime is due to the performance reduction of vital equipment, which are sensitive to the total transmitted acceleration. A well-known method of protecting such equipment is seismic isolation of the equipment itself (or a group of equipment), as opposed to the entire structure due to the lower cost of implementation. The first objective of this dissertation is assessing a rolling isolation system (RIS) based on existing design guidelines for telecommunications equipment. A discrepancy is observed between the required response spectrum (RRS) and the one and only accelerogram recommended in the guideline. Several filters are developed to generate synthetic accelerograms that are compatible with the RRS. The generated accelerograms are used for probabilistic assessment of a RIS that is acceptable per the guideline. This assessment reveals large failure probability due to displacement demands in excess of the displacement capacity of the RIS. When the displacement demands on an isolation system are in excess of its capacity, impacts result in spikes in transmitted acceleration. Therefore, the second objective of this dissertation is more » to design impact prevention/mitigation mechanisms. A dual-mode system is proposed where the behavior changes when the displacement exceeds a predefined threshold. A new piecewise optimal control approach is developed and applied to find the best possible mechanism for the region beyond the threshold. By utilizing the designed curves obtained from the proposed optimal control procedure, a Kelvin-Voigt device is tuned for illustrative purposes. On the other hand, the preference for protecting equipment decreases as the earthquake intensity increases. In extreme seismic loading, the response mitigation of the primary structure (i.e., life safety and collapse prevention) is of greater concern than protecting isolated equipment. Therefore, the third objective of this dissertation is to develop an innovative dual-mode system that can behave as equipment isolation under low to moderate seismic loading and passively transition to behave as a vibration absorber for the primary structure under extreme seismic loading. To reduce the computational cost of simulating a large linear elastic structure with nonlinear attachments (i.e., equipment isolation with cubic hardening nonlinearity), a reduced order modeling method is introduced that can capture the behavior of such nonlinear coupled systems. The method is applied to study the feasibility of dual-mode vibration isolation/absorber. To this end, nonlinear transmissibility curves for the roof displacement and isolated mass total acceleration are developed from the steady-state responses of dual-mode systems using the harmonic balanced method. The final objective of this dissertation is to extend the reduced order modeling method developed for linear elastic structure with nonlinear attachment to inelastic structures (without attachments). The new inelastic model condensation (IMC) method uses the modal properties of the full structural model (in the elastic range) to construct a linear reduced order model in conjunction with a hysteresis model to capture the hysteretic inter-story restoring forces. The parameters of these hysteretic forces are easily tuned, in order to fit the inelastic behavior of the condensed structure to that of the full model under a variety of simple loading scenarios. The fidelity of structural models condensed in this way is demonstrated via simulation for different ground motion intensities on three different building structures with various heights. The simplicity, accuracy, and efficiency of this approach could significantly alleviate the computational burden of performance-based earthquake engineering. « less
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The University of Oklahoma Libraries
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National Science Foundation
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  1. Abstract

    Floor isolation systems (FISs) are used to mitigate earthquake‐induced damage to sensitive building contents. Dynamic coupling between the FIS and primary structure (PS) may be nonnegligible or even advantageous when strong nonlinearities are present under large isolator displacements. This study investigates the influence of dynamic coupling between the PS and FIS in the presence of nonsmooth (impact‐like) nonlinearity in the FIS under intense earthquakes. Using component mode analysis, a nonlinear reduced order model of the combined FIS–PS system is developed by coupling a condensed model of the linear PS to the nonlinear FIS. A bilinear Hertz‐type contact model is assumed for the FIS, with the gap and the impact stiffness and damping providing parametric variation. The performance of the FIS–PS system is quantified through a multiobjective, risk‐based design criterion considering both the total acceleration sustained by the isolated mass under a service‐level earthquake and the interstory drift under a maximum considered earthquake. The results of a parametric study shed light on understanding the valid range that the decoupled approach can be reliably applied for nonlinear FISs experiencing impacts. It is also shown that the nonlinear FIS can be tuned in such a way to mitigate seismic responses of themore »supporting PS under strong shaking, in addition to protecting the isolated mass at low to moderate shaking. The FIS, therefore, functions as a dual‐mode vibration isolator/absorber system, with displacement‐dependent response adaptation. Guidelines to the optimal tuning of such a dual‐mode system are presented based on the risk‐based stochastic design optimization.

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  2. Floor isolation systems (FISs) are used to mitigate earthquake-induced damage to sensitive building contents and equipment. Traditionally, the isolated floor and the primary building structure (PS) are analyzed independently, assuming the PS response is uncoupled from the FIS response. Dynamic coupling may be non-negligible when nonlinearities are present under large deflections at strong disturbance levels. This study investigates a multi-functional FIS that functions primarily as an isolator (i.e., attenuating total acceleration sustained by the isolated equipment) at low-to-moderate disturbance levels, and then passively adapt under strong disturbances to function as a nonlinear (vibro-impact) dynamic vibration absorbers to protect the PS (i.e., reducing inter-story drifts). The FIS, therefore, functions as a dual-model vibration isolator/absorber system, with displacement dependent response adaptation. A scale experimental model—consisting of a three-story frame and an isolated mass—is used to demonstrate and evaluate the design methodology via shake table tests. The properties of the 3D-printed rolling pendulum (RP) bearing, the seismic gap, and the impact mechanism are optimized to achieve the desired dual-mode performance. A suite of four ground motions with varying spectral qualities are used, and their amplitudes are scaled to represent various hazards—from service level earthquake (SLE), to design basis earthquake (DBE), and even maximummore »considered earthquake (MCE). The performance of the multi-functional FIS is established and is described in this paper.« less
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