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Title: Experimental Constraints on Dacite Magma Storage beneath Volcán Quizapu, Chile
Abstract Volcán Quizapu, Chile, is an under-monitored volcano that was the site of two historical eruptions: an effusive eruption in 1846–1847 and a Plinian eruption in 1932, both of which discharged ∼5 km3 (dense rock equivalent) of lava and/or tephra. The majority of material erupted in both cases is trachydacite, nearly identical for each event. We present H2O-saturated, phase equilibrium experiments on this end-member dacite magma, using a pumice sample from the 1932 eruption as the main starting material. At an oxygen fugacity (fO2) of ∼NNO + 0·2 (where NNO is the nickel–nickel oxide buffer), the phase assemblage of An25–30 plagioclase + amphibole + orthopyroxene, without biotite, is stable at 865 ± 10 °C and 110 ± 20 MPa H2O pressure (PH2O), corresponding to ∼4 km depth. At these conditions, experiments also reproduce the quenched glass composition of the starting pumice. At slightly higher PH2O and below 860 °C, biotite joins the equilibrium assemblage. Because biotite is not part of the observed Quizapu phase assemblage, its presence places an upper limit on PH2O. At the determined storage PH2O of ∼110 MPa, H2O undersaturation of the magma with XH2Ofluid = 0·87 would align Ptotal to mineral-based geobarometry estimates of ∼130 MPa. However, XH2Ofluid < 1 is not required to reproduce the Quizapu dacite phase more » assemblage and compositions. A second suite of experiments at lower fO2 shows that the stability fields of the hydrous silicates (amphibole and biotite) are significantly restricted at NNO – 2 relative to NNO + 0·2. Additional observations of Quizapu lava and pumice samples support the existing hypothesis that rapid pre-eruptive heating drove the effusive 1846–1847 eruption, with important refinements. We demonstrate that microlites in the end-member dacite lavas are consistent with in situ crystallization (during ascent), rather than transfer from an andesite. In one end-member dacite lava, newly identified reverse zoning in orthopyroxene and incipient destabilization of amphibole are consistent with small degrees of heating. Our work articulates a clear direction for future Quizapu studies, which are warranted given the active nature of the Cerro Azul–Descabezado Grande volcanic axis. « less
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Journal of Petrology
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National Science Foundation
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