 Award ID(s):
 1804463
 NSFPAR ID:
 10273601
 Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »
 Date Published:
 Journal Name:
 Nature Communications
 Volume:
 12
 Issue:
 1
 ISSN:
 20411723
 Format(s):
 Medium: X
 Sponsoring Org:
 National Science Foundation
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null (Ed.)ABSTRACT We present a systematic shearingbox investigation of magnetorotational instability (MRI)driven turbulence in a weakly collisional plasma by including the effects of an anisotropic pressure stress, i.e. anisotropic (Braginskii) viscosity. We constrain the pressure anisotropy (Δp) to lie within the stability bounds that would be otherwise imposed by kinetic microinstabilities. We explore a broad region of parameter space by considering different Reynolds numbers and magneticfield configurations, including net vertical flux, net toroidalvertical flux, and zero net flux. Remarkably, we find that the level of turbulence and angularmomentum transport are not greatly affected by large anisotropic viscosities: the Maxwell and Reynolds stresses do not differ much from the MHD result. Angularmomentum transport in Braginskii MHD still depends strongly on isotropic dissipation, e.g. the isotropic magnetic Prandtl number, even when the anisotropic viscosity is orders of magnitude larger than the isotropic diffusivities. Braginskii viscosity nevertheless changes the flow structure, rearranging the turbulence to largely counter the parallel rate of strain from the background shear. We also show that the volumeaveraged pressure anisotropy and anisotropic viscous transport decrease with increasing isotropic Reynolds number (Re); e.g. in simulations with net vertical field, the ratio of anisotropic to Maxwell stress (αA/αM) decreases from ∼0.5 to ∼0.1 as we move from Re ∼ 103 to Re ∼ 104, while 〈4$\pi$Δp/B2〉 → 0. Anisotropic transport may thus become negligible at high Re. Anisotropic viscosity nevertheless becomes the dominant source of heating at large Re, accounting for ${\gtrsim } 50 {{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ of the plasma heating. We conclude by briefly discussing the implications of our results for radiatively inefficient accretion flows on to black holes.more » « less

ABSTRACT We present and study a large suite of highresolution cosmological zoomin simulations, using the FIRE2 treatment of mechanical and radiative feedback from massive stars, together with explicit treatment of magnetic fields, anisotropic conduction and viscosity (accounting for saturation and limitation by plasma instabilities at high β), and cosmic rays (CRs) injected in supernovae shocks (including anisotropic diffusion, streaming, adiabatic, hadronic and Coulomb losses). We survey systems from ultrafaint dwarf ($M_{\ast }\sim 10^{4}\, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$, $M_{\rm halo}\sim 10^{9}\, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$) through Milky Way/Local Group (MW/LG) masses, systematically vary uncertain CR parameters (e.g. the diffusion coefficient κ and streaming velocity), and study a broad ensemble of galaxy properties [masses, star formation (SF) histories, mass profiles, phase structure, morphologies, etc.]. We confirm previous conclusions that magnetic fields, conduction, and viscosity on resolved ($\gtrsim 1\,$ pc) scales have only small effects on bulk galaxy properties. CRs have relatively weak effects on all galaxy properties studied in dwarfs ($M_{\ast } \ll 10^{10}\, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$, $M_{\rm halo} \lesssim 10^{11}\, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$), or at high redshifts (z ≳ 1–2), for any physically reasonable parameters. However, at higher masses ($M_{\rm halo} \gtrsim 10^{11}\, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$) and z ≲ 1–2, CRs can suppress SF and stellar masses by factors ∼2–4, given reasonable injection efficiencies and relatively high effective diffusion coefficients $\kappa \gtrsim 3\times 10^{29}\, {\rm cm^{2}\, s^{1}}$. At lower κ, CRs take too long to escape dense starforming gas and lose their energy to collisional hadronic losses, producing negligible effects on galaxies and violating empirical constraints from spallation and γray emission. At much higher κ CRs escape too efficiently to have appreciable effects even in the CGM. But around $\kappa \sim 3\times 10^{29}\, {\rm cm^{2}\, s^{1}}$, CRs escape the galaxy and build up a CRpressuredominated halo which maintains approximate virial equilibrium and supports relatively dense, cool (T ≪ 106 K) gas that would otherwise rain on to the galaxy. CR ‘heating’ (from collisional and streaming losses) is never dominant.more » « less

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null (Ed.)In this article, there are 18 sections discussing various current topics in the field of relativistic heavyion collisions and related phenomena, which will serve as a snapshot of the current state of the art. Section 1 reviews experimental results of some recent lightflavored particle production data from ALICE collaboration. Other sections are mostly theoretical in nature. Very strong but transient magnetic field created in relativistic heavyion collisions could have important observational consequences. This has generated a lot of theoretical activity in the last decade. Sections 2, 7, 9, 10 and 11 deal with the effects of the magnetic field on the properties of the QCD matter. More specifically, Sec. 2 discusses mass of [Formula: see text] in the linear sigma model coupled to quarks at zero temperature. In Sec. 7, oneloop calculation of the anisotropic pressure are discussed in the presence of strong magnetic field. In Sec. 9, chiral transition and chiral susceptibility in the NJL model is discussed for a chirally imbalanced plasma in the presence of magnetic field using a Wigner function approach. Sections 10 discusses electrical conductivity and Hall conductivity of hot and dense hadron gas within Boltzmann approach and Sec. 11 deals with electrical resistivity of quark matter in presence of magnetic field. There are several unanswered questions about the QCD phase diagram. Sections 3, 11 and 18 discuss various aspects of the QCD phase diagram and phase transitions. Recent years have witnessed interesting developments in foundational aspects of hydrodynamics and their application to heavyion collisions. Sections 12 and 15–17 of this article probe some aspects of this exciting field. In Sec. 12, analytical solutions of viscous Landau hydrodynamics in 1+1D are discussed. Section 15 deals with derivation of hydrodynamics from effective covariant kinetic theory. Sections 16 and 17 discuss hydrodynamics with spin and analytical hydrodynamic attractors, respectively. Transport coefficients together with their temperature and densitydependence are essential inputs in hydrodynamical calculations. Sections 5, 8 and 14 deal with calculation/estimation of various transport coefficients (shear and bulk viscosity, thermal conductivity, relaxation times, etc.) of quark matter and hadronic matter. Sections 4, 6 and 13 deal with interesting new developments in the field. Section 4 discusses color dipole gluon distribution function at small transverse momentum in the form of a series of Bells polynomials. Section 6 discusses the properties of Higgs boson in the quark–gluon plasma using Higgs–quark interaction and calculate the Higgs decays into quark and antiquark, which shows a dominant onshell contribution in the bottomquark channel. Section 13 discusses modification of coalescence model to incorporate viscous corrections and application of this model to study hadron production from a dissipative quark–gluon plasma.more » « less