- Award ID(s):
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- Journal Name:
- Chemical Science
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 12974 to 12993
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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The selective functionalization of remote C–H bonds via intramolecular hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) is transformative for organic synthesis. This radical-mediated strategy provides access to novel reactivity that is complementary to closed-shell pathways. As modern methods for mild generation of radicals are continually developed, inherent selectivity paradigms of HAT mechanisms offer unparalleled opportunities for developing new strategies for C–H functionalization. This review outlines the history, recent advances, and mechanistic underpinnings of intramolecular HAT as a guide to addressing ongoing challenges in this arena. 1 Introduction 2 Nitrogen-Centered Radicals 2.1 sp3 N-Radical Initiation 2.2 sp2 N-Radical Initiation 3 Oxygen-Centered Radicals 3.1 Carbonyl Diradical Initiation 3.2 Alkoxy Radical Initiation 3.3 Non-alkoxy Radical Initiation 4 Carbon-Centered Radicals 4.1 sp2 C-Radical Initiation 4.2 sp3 C-Radical Initiation 5 Conclusion
A general strategy for C(sp3)–H functionalization with nucleophiles using methyl radical as a hydrogen atom abstractor
Photoredox catalysis has provided many approaches to C(sp3)–H functionalization that enable selective oxidation and C(sp3)–C bond formation via the intermediacy of a carbon-centered radical. While highly enabling, functionalization of the carbon-centered radical is largely mediated by electrophilic reagents. Notably, nucleophilic reagents represent an abundant and practical reagent class, motivating the interest in developing a general C(sp3)–H functionalization strategy with nucleophiles. Here we describe a strategy that transforms C(sp3)–H bonds into carbocations via sequential hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) and oxidative radical-polar crossover. The resulting carbocation is functionalized by a variety of nucleophiles—including halides, water, alcohols, thiols, an electron-rich arene, and an azide—to effect diverse bond formations. Mechanistic studies indicate that HAT is mediated by methyl radical—a previously unexplored HAT agent with differing polarity to many of those used in photoredox catalysis—enabling new site-selectivity for late-stage C(sp3)–H functionalization.
Conspectus By using transition metal catalysts, chemists have altered the “logic of chemical synthesis” by enabling the functionalization of carbon–hydrogen bonds, which have traditionally been considered inert. Within this framework, our laboratory has been fascinated by the potential for aldehyde C–H bond activation. Our approach focused on generating acyl-metal-hydrides by oxidative addition of the formyl C–H bond, which is an elementary step first validated by Tsuji in 1965. In this Account, we review our efforts to overcome limitations in hydroacylation. Initial studies resulted in new variants of hydroacylation and ultimately spurred the development of related transformations (e.g., carboacylation, cycloisomerization, and transfer hydroformylation). Sakai and co-workers demonstrated the first hydroacylation of olefins when they reported that 4-pentenals cyclized to cyclopentanones, using stoichiometric amounts of Wilkinson’s catalyst. This discovery sparked significant interest in hydroacylation, especially for the enantioselective and catalytic construction of cyclopentanones. Our research focused on expanding the asymmetric variants to access medium-sized rings (e.g., seven- and eight-membered rings). In addition, we achieved selective intermolecular couplings by incorporating directing groups onto the olefin partner. Along the way, we identified Rh and Co catalysts that transform dienyl aldehydes into a variety of unique carbocycles, such as cyclopentanones, bicyclic ketones, cyclohexenyl aldehydes, andmore »
Allylic substitution, pioneered by the work of Tsuji and Trost, has been an invaluable tool in the synthesis of complex molecules for decades. An attractive alternative to allylic substitution is the direct functionalization of allylic C–H bonds of unactivated alkenes, thereby avoiding the need for prefunctionalization. Significant early advances in allylic C–H functionalization were made using palladium catalysis. However, Pd-catalyzed reactions are generally limited to the functionalization of terminal olefins with stabilized nucleophiles. Insights from Li, Cossy, and Tanaka demonstrated the utility of RhCp x catalysts for allylic functionalization. Since these initial reports, a number of key intermolecular Co-, Rh-, and Ir-catalyzed allylic C–H functionalization reactions have been reported, offering significant complementarity to the Pd-catalyzed reactions. Herein, we report a summary of recent advances in intermolecular allylic C–H functionalization via group IX-metal π-allyl complexes. Mechanism-driven development of new catalysts is highlighted, and the potential for future developments is discussed.
Non-Classical Amide Bond Formation: Transamidation and Amidation of Activated Amides and Esters by Selective N–C/O–C CleavageIn the past several years, tremendous advances have been made in non-classical routes for amide bond formation that involve transamidation and amidation reactions of activated amides and esters. These new methods enable the formation of extremely valuable amide bonds via transition-metal- catalyzed, transition-metal-free or metal-free pathways by exploiting chemoselective acyl C–X (X = N, O) cleavage under mild conditions. In a broadest sense, these reactions overcome the formidable challenge of activating C–N/C–O bonds of amides or esters by rationally tackling nN→π*C=O delocalization in amides and nO→π*C=O donation in esters. In this account, we summarize the recent remarkable advances in the development of new methods for the synthesis of amides with a focus on (1) transition-metal/NHC- catalyzed C–N/C–O bond activation, (2) transition-metal-free highly selective cleavage of C–N/C–O bonds, (3) the development of new acyl-transfer reagents, and (4) other emerging methods.