- Li, Wenzhong
- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 1 to 8
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Two Souls in an Adversarial Image: Towards Universal Adversarial Example Detection using Multi-view InconsistencyIn the evasion attacks against deep neural networks (DNN), the attacker generates adversarial instances that are visually indistinguishable from benign samples and sends them to the target DNN to trigger misclassifications. In this paper, we propose a novel multi-view adversarial image detector, namely Argos, based on a novel observation. That is, there exist two “souls” in an adversarial instance, i.e., the visually unchanged content, which corresponds to the true label, and the added invisible perturbation, which corresponds to the misclassified label. Such inconsistencies could be further amplified through an autoregressive generative approach that generates images with seed pixels selected from the original image, a selected label, and pixel distributions learned from the training data. The generated images (i.e., the “views”) will deviate significantly from the original one if the label is adversarial, demonstrating inconsistencies that Argos expects to detect. To this end, Argos first amplifies the discrepancies between the visual content of an image and its misclassified label induced by the attack using a set of regeneration mechanisms and then identifies an image as adversarial if the reproduced views deviate to a preset degree. Our experimental results show that Argos significantly outperforms two representative adversarial detectors in both detection accuracymore »
Traditional Deep Neural Network (DNN) security is mostly related to the well-known adversarial input example attack.Recently, another dimension of adversarial attack, namely, attack on DNN weight parameters, has been shown to be very powerful. Asa representative one, the Bit-Flip based adversarial weight Attack (BFA) injects an extremely small amount of faults into weight parameters to hijack the executing DNN function. Prior works of BFA focus on un-targeted attacks that can hack all inputs into a random output class by flipping a very small number of weight bits stored in computer memory. This paper proposes the first work oftargetedBFA based (T-BFA) adversarial weight attack on DNNs, which can intentionally mislead selected inputs to a target output class. The objective is achieved by identifying the weight bits that are highly associated with classification of a targeted output through a class-dependent weight bit searching algorithm. Our proposed T-BFA performance is successfully demonstrated on multiple DNN architectures for image classification tasks. For example, by merely flipping 27 out of 88 million weight bits of ResNet-18, our T-BFA can misclassify all the images from Hen class into Goose class (i.e., 100% attack success rate) in ImageNet dataset, while maintaining 59.35% validation accuracy.
Deep neural networks (DNNs) are widely used to handle many difficult tasks, such as image classification and malware detection, and achieve outstanding performance. However, recent studies on adversarial examples, which have maliciously undetectable perturbations added to their original samples that are indistinguishable by human eyes but mislead the machine learning approaches, show that machine learning models are vulnerable to security attacks. Though various adversarial retraining techniques have been developed in the past few years, none of them is scalable. In this paper, we propose a new iterative adversarial retraining approach to robustify the model and to reduce the effectiveness of adversarial inputs on DNN models. The proposed method retrains the model with both Gaussian noise augmentation and adversarial generation techniques for better generalization. Furthermore, the ensemble model is utilized during the testing phase in order to increase the robust test accuracy. The results from our extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed approach increases the robustness of the DNN model against various adversarial attacks, specifically, fast gradient sign attack, Carlini and Wagner (C&W) attack, Projected Gradient Descent (PGD) attack, and DeepFool attack. To be precise, the robust classifier obtained by our proposed approach can maintain a performance accuracy of 99%more »
The globalized semiconductor supply chain significantly increases the risk of exposing System-on-Chip (SoC) designs to malicious implants, popularly known as hardware Trojans. Traditional simulation-based validation is unsuitable for detection of carefully-crafted hardware Trojans with extremely rare trigger conditions. While machine learning (ML) based Trojan detection approaches are promising due to their scalability as well as detection accuracy, ML-based methods themselves are vulnerable from Trojan attacks. In this paper, we propose a robust backdoor attack on ML-based Trojan detection algorithms to demonstrate this serious vulnerability. The proposed framework is able to design an AI Trojan and implant it inside the ML model that can be triggered by specific inputs. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed AI Trojans can bypass state-of-the-art defense algorithms. Moreover, our approach provides a fast and cost-effective solution in achieving 100% attack success rate that significantly outperforms state-of-the art approaches based on adversarial attacks.
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