skip to main content

Title: A gradient-based Markov chain Monte Carlo method for full-waveform inversion and uncertainty analysis
Traditional full-waveform inversion (FWI) methods only render a “best-fit” model that cannot account for uncertainties of the ill-posed inverse problem. Additionally, local optimization-based FWI methods cannot always converge to a geologically meaningful solution unless the inversion starts with an accurate background model. We seek the solution for FWI in the Bayesian inference framework to address those two issues. In Bayesian inference, the model space is directly probed by sampling methods such that we obtain a reliable uncertainty appraisal, determine optimal models, and avoid entrapment in a small local region of the model space. The solution of such a statistical inverse method is completely described by the posterior distribution, which quantifies the distributions for parameters and inversion uncertainties.
Authors:
;
Award ID(s):
1723019
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10274533
Journal Name:
Geophysics
Volume:
86
Issue:
1
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
R15-R30
ISSN:
1942-2156
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. SUMMARY We introduce a new finite-element (FE) based computational framework to solve forward and inverse elastic deformation problems for earthquake faulting via the adjoint method. Based on two advanced computational libraries, FEniCS and hIPPYlib for the forward and inverse problems, respectively, this framework is flexible, transparent and easily extensible. We represent a fault discontinuity through a mixed FE elasticity formulation, which approximates the stress with higher order accuracy and exposes the prescribed slip explicitly in the variational form without using conventional split node and decomposition discrete approaches. This also allows the first order optimality condition, that is the vanishing of the gradient, to be expressed in continuous form, which leads to consistent discretizations of all field variables, including the slip. We show comparisons with the standard, pure displacement formulation and a model containing an in-plane mode II crack, whose slip is prescribed via the split node technique. We demonstrate the potential of this new computational framework by performing a linear coseismic slip inversion through adjoint-based optimization methods, without requiring computation of elastic Green’s functions. Specifically, we consider a penalized least squares formulation, which in a Bayesian setting—under the assumption of Gaussian noise and prior—reflects the negative log of the posteriormore »distribution. The comparison of the inversion results with a standard, linear inverse theory approach based on Okada’s solutions shows analogous results. Preliminary uncertainties are estimated via eigenvalue analysis of the Hessian of the penalized least squares objective function. Our implementation is fully open-source and Jupyter notebooks to reproduce our results are provided. The extension to a fully Bayesian framework for detailed uncertainty quantification and non-linear inversions, including for heterogeneous media earthquake problems, will be analysed in a forthcoming paper.« less
  2. Summary The contiguous United States has been well instrumented with broadband seismic stations due to the development of the EarthScope Transportable Array. Previous studies have provided various 3D seismic wave speed models for the crust and upper mantle with improved resolution. However, discrepancies exist among these models due to differences in both data sets and tomographic methods, which introduce uncertainties on the imaged lithospheic structure beneath North America. A further model refinement using the best data coverage and advanced tomographic methods such as full-waveform inversion (FWI) is expected to provide better seismological constraints. Initial models have significant impacts on the convergence of FWIs. However, how to select an optimal initial model is not well investigated. Here, we present a data-driven initial model selection procedure for the contiguous US and surrounding regions by assessing waveform fitting and misfit functions between the observations and synthetics from candidate models. We use a data set of waveforms from 30 earthquakes recorded by 5,820 stations across North America. The results suggest that the tested 3D models capture well long-period waveforms while showing discrepancies in short-periods especially on tangential components. This observation indicates that the smaller-scale heterogeneities and radial anisotropy in the crust and upper mantlemore »are not well constrained. Based on our test results, a hybrid initial model combining S40RTS or S362ANI in the mantle and US.2016 for Vsv and CRUST1.0 for Vsh in the crust is compatible for future FWIs to refine the lithospheric structure of North America.« less
  3. Varadhan, S.R.S. (Ed.)
    Full-waveform inversion (FWI) is today a standard process for the inverse problem of seismic imaging. PDE-constrained optimization is used to determine unknown parameters in a wave equation that represent geophysical properties. The objective function measures the misfit between the observed data and the calculated synthetic data, and it has traditionally been the least-squares norm. In a sequence of papers, we introduced the Wasserstein metric from optimal transport as an alternative misfit function for mitigating the so-called cycle skipping, which is the trapping of the optimization process in local minima. In this paper, we first give a sharper theorem regarding the convexity of the Wasserstein metric as the objective function. We then focus on two new issues. One is the necessary normalization of turning seismic signals into probability measures such that the theory of optimal transport applies. The other, which is beyond cycle skipping, is the inversion for parameters below reflecting interfaces. For the first, we propose a class of normalizations and prove several favorable properties for this class. For the latter, we demonstrate that FWI using optimal transport can recover geophysical properties from domains where no seismic waves travel through. We finally illustrate these properties by the realistic application ofmore »imaging salt inclusions, which has been a significant challenge in exploration geophysics.« less
  4. We present data-driven coarse-grained (CG) modeling for polymers in solution, which conserves the dynamic as well as structural properties of the underlying atomistic system. The CG modeling is built upon the framework of the generalized Langevin equation (GLE). The key is to determine each term in the GLE by directly linking it to atomistic data. In particular, we propose a two-stage Gaussian process-based Bayesian optimization method to infer the non-Markovian memory kernel from the data of the velocity autocorrelation function (VACF). Considering that the long-time behaviors of the VACF and memory kernel for polymer solutions can exhibit hydrodynamic scaling (algebraic decay with time), we further develop an active learning method to determine the emergence of hydrodynamic scaling, which can accelerate the inference process of the memory kernel. The proposed methods do not rely on how the mean force or CG potential in the GLE is constructed. Thus, we also compare two methods for constructing the CG potential: a deep learning method and the iterative Boltzmann inversion method. With the memory kernel and CG potential determined, the GLE is mapped onto an extended Markovian process to circumvent the expensive cost of directly solving the GLE. The accuracy and computational efficiency ofmore »the proposed CG modeling are assessed in a model star-polymer solution system at three representative concentrations. By comparing with the reference atomistic simulation results, we demonstrate that the proposed CG modeling can robustly and accurately reproduce the dynamic and structural properties of polymers in solution.« less
  5. The deformations of several slender structures at nano-scale are conceivably sensitive to their non-homogenous elasticity. Owing to their small scale, it is not feasible to discern their elasticity parameter fields accurately using observations from physical experiments. Molecular dynamics simulations can provide an alternative or additional source of data. However, the challenges still lie in developing computationally efficient and robust methods to solve inverse problems to infer the elasticity parameter field from the deformations. In this paper, we formulate an inverse problem governed by a linear elastic model in a Bayesian inference framework. To make the problem tractable, we use a Gaussian approximation of the posterior probability distribution that results from the Bayesian solution of the inverse problem of inferring Young’s modulus parameter fields from available data. The performance of the computational framework is demonstrated using two representative loading scenarios, one involving cantilever bending and the other involving stretching of a helical rod (an intrinsically curved structure). The results show that smoothly varying parameter fields can be reconstructed satisfactorily from noisy data. We also quantify the uncertainty in the inferred parameters and discuss the effect of the quality of the data on the reconstructions.