skip to main content

Title: Clumpiness: time-domain classification of red giant evolutionary states
ABSTRACT Long, high-quality time-series data provided by previous space missions such as CoRoT and Kepler have made it possible to derive the evolutionary state of red giant stars, i.e. whether the stars are hydrogen-shell burning around an inert helium core or helium-core burning, from their individual oscillation modes. We utilize data from the Kepler mission to develop a tool to classify the evolutionary state for the large number of stars being observed in the current era of K2, TESS, and for the future PLATO mission. These missions provide new challenges for evolutionary state classification given the large number of stars being observed and the shorter observing duration of the data. We propose a new method, Clumpiness, based upon a supervised classification scheme that uses ‘summary statistics’ of the time series, combined with distance information from the Gaia mission to predict the evolutionary state. Applying this to red giants in the APOKASC catalogue, we obtain a classification accuracy of $\sim 91{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ for the full 4 yr of Kepler data, for those stars that are either only hydrogen-shell burning or also helium-core burning. We also applied the method to shorter Kepler data sets, mimicking CoRoT, K2, and TESS achieving an more » accuracy $\gt 91{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ even for the 27 d time series. This work paves the way towards fast, reliable classification of vast amounts of relatively short-time-span data with a few, well-engineered features. « less
Authors:
; ;
Award ID(s):
1903828
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10275205
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume:
497
Issue:
4
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
4843 to 4856
ISSN:
0035-8711
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    Helium-rich subdwarf O stars (sdOs) are hot compact stars in a pre-white dwarf evolutionary state. Most of them have effective temperatures and surface gravities in the range Teff = 40 000–50 000 K and log g = 5.5–6.0. Their atmospheres are helium dominated. If present at all, C, N, and O are trace elements. The abundance patterns are explained in terms of nucleosynthesis during single star evolution (late helium core flash) or a binary He-core white dwarf merger. Here we announce the discovery of two hot hydrogen-deficient sdOs (PG1654+322 and PG1528+025) that exhibit unusually strong carbon and oxygen lines. A non-LTE model atmosphere analysis of spectra obtained with the Large Binocular Telescope and by the LAMOST survey reveals astonishingly high abundances of C ($\approx 20{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$) and O ($\approx 20{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$) and that the two stars are located close to the helium main sequence. Both establish a new spectroscopic class of hot H-deficient subdwarfs (CO-sdO) and can be identified as the remnants of a He-core white dwarf that accreted matter of a merging low-mass CO-core white dwarf. We conclude that the CO-sdOs represent an alternative evolutionary channel creating PG1159 stars besides the evolution of single stars that experience a late helium-shell flash.

  2. Abstract

    PG 1159-035 is the prototype of the PG 1159 hot (pre-)white dwarf pulsators. This important object was observed during the Kepler satellite K2 mission for 69 days in 59 s cadence mode and by the TESS satellite for 25 days in 20 s cadence mode. We present a detailed asteroseismic analysis of those data. We identify a total of 107 frequencies representing 32= 1 modes, 27 frequencies representing 12= 2 modes, and eight combination frequencies. The combination frequencies and the modes with very highkvalues represent new detections. The multiplet structure reveals an average splitting of 4.0 ± 0.4μHz for= 1 and 6.8 ± 0.2μHz for= 2, indicating a rotation period of 1.4 ± 0.1 days in the region of period formation. In the Fourier transform of the light curve, we find a significant peak at 8.904 ± 0.003μHz suggesting a surface rotation period of 1.299 ± 0.002 days. We also present evidence that the observed periods change on timescales shorter than those predicted by current evolutionary models. Our asteroseismic analysis finds an average period spacing for= 1 of 21.28 ± 0.02 s. The= 2 modes have a mean spacing of 12.97 ± 0.4 s. We performed a detailed asteroseismicmore »fit by comparing the observed periods with those of evolutionary models. The best-fit model hasTeff= 129, 600 ± 11 100 K,M*= 0.565 ± 0.024M, andlogg=7.410.54+0.38, within the uncertainties of the spectroscopic determinations. We argue for future improvements in the current models, e.g., on the overshooting in the He-burning stage, as the best-fit model does not predict excitation for all of the pulsations detected in PG 1159-035.

    « less
  3. ABSTRACT Some young stellar objects such as T Tauri-like ‘dipper’ stars vary due to transient partial occultation by circumstellar dust, and observations of this phenomenon inform us of conditions in the planet-forming zones close to these stars. Although many dipper stars have been identified with space missions such as Kepler/K2, ground-based telescopes offer longer term and multiwavelength perspectives. We identified 11 dipper stars in the Lupus star-forming region in data from the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN), and further characterized these using observations by the Las Cumbres Global Observatory Telescope (LCOGT) and the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), as well as archival data from other missions. Dipper stars were identified from a catalogue of nearby young stars and selected based on the statistical significance, asymmetry, and quasi-periodicity or aperiodicity of variability in their ASAS-SN light curves. All 11 stars lie above or redwards of the zero-age main sequence and have infrared (IR) excesses indicating the presence of full circumstellar discs. We obtain reddening–extinction relations for the variability of seven stars using our combined ASAS-SN-TESS and LCOGT photometry. In all cases, the slopes are below the ISM value, suggesting larger grains, and we find a tentative relation between the slopemore »(grain size) and the $K_\text{s}-[22 \, \mu \text{m}]$ IR colour regarded as a proxy for disc evolutionary state.« less
  4. Context. Before reaching their quiescent terminal white-dwarf cooling branch, some low-mass helium-core white dwarf stellar models experience a number of nuclear flashes which greatly reduce their hydrogen envelopes. Just before the occurrence of each flash, stable hydrogen burning may be able to drive global pulsations that could be relevant in shedding some light on the internal structure of these stars through asteroseismology, similarly to what occurs with other classes of pulsating white dwarfs. Aims. We present a pulsational stability analysis applied to low-mass helium-core stars on their early white-dwarf cooling branches going through CNO flashes in order to study the possibility that the ε mechanism is able to excite gravity-mode pulsations. We assess the ranges of unstable periods and the corresponding instability domain in the log g  −  T eff plane. Methods. We carried out a nonadiabatic pulsation analysis for low-mass helium-core white-dwarf models with stellar masses between 0.2025 and 0.3630  M ⊙ going through CNO flashes during their early cooling phases. Results. We found that the ε mechanism due to stable hydrogen burning can excite low-order ( ℓ  = 1, 2) gravity modes with periods between ∼80 and 500 s for stars with 0.2025 ≲  M ⋆ / M ⊙  ≲ 0.3630 locatedmore »in an extended region of the log g  −  T eff diagram, with effective temperature and surface gravity in the ranges 15 000 ≲  T eff  ≲ 38 000 K and 5.8 ≲ log g  ≲ 7.1, respectively. For the sequences that experience multiple CNO flashes, we found that with every consecutive flash, the region of instability becomes wider and the modes are more strongly excited. The magnitudes of the rate of period change for these modes are in the range of ∼10 −10 –10 −11  [s/s]. Conclusions. Since the timescales required for these modes to reach amplitudes large enough to be observable are shorter than their corresponding evolutionary timescales, the detection of pulsations in these stars is feasible. Given the current problems in distinguishing some stars that populate the same region of the log g  −  T eff plane, the eventual detection of short-period pulsations may help in the classification of such stars. Furthermore, if a low-mass white dwarf star were found to pulsate with low-order gravity modes in this region of instability, it would confirm our result that such pulsations can be driven by the ε mechanism. In addition, confirming a rapid rate of period change in these pulsations would support the idea that these stars actually experience CNO flashes, as has been predicted by evolutionary calculations.« less
  5. Abstract

    We present the third and final data release of the K2 Galactic Archaeology Program (K2 GAP) for Campaigns C1–C8 and C10–C18. We provide asteroseismic radius and mass coefficients,κRandκM, for ∼19,000 red giant stars, which translate directly to radius and mass given a temperature. As such, K2 GAP DR3 represents the largest asteroseismic sample in the literature to date. K2 GAP DR3 stellar parameters are calibrated to be on an absolute parallactic scale based on Gaia DR2, with red giant branch and red clump evolutionary state classifications provided via a machine-learning approach. Combining these stellar parameters with GALAH DR3 spectroscopy, we determine asteroseismic ages with precisions of ∼20%–30% and compare age-abundance relations to Galactic chemical evolution models among both low- and high-αpopulations forα, light, iron-peak, and neutron-capture elements. We confirm recent indications in the literature of both increased Ba production at late Galactic times as well as significant contributions tor-process enrichment from prompt sources associated with, e.g., core-collapse supernovae. With an eye toward other Galactic archeology applications, we characterize K2 GAP DR3 uncertainties and completeness using injection tests, suggesting that K2 GAP DR3 is largely unbiased in mass/age, with uncertainties of 2.9% (stat.) ± 0.1% (syst.) and 6.7% (stat.) ±more »0.3% (syst.) inκRandκMfor red giant branch stars and 4.7% (stat.) ± 0.3% (syst.) and 11% (stat.) ± 0.9% (syst.) for red clump stars. We also identify percent-level asteroseismic systematics, which are likely related to the time baseline of the underlying data, and which therefore should be considered in TESS asteroseismic analysis.

    « less