skip to main content

Title: Accurate Determination of the Neutron Skin Thickness of 208Pb through Parity-Violation in Electron Scattering
We report a precision measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry APV in the elastic scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from 208Pb. We measure APV=550±16(stat)±8(syst) parts per billion, leading to an extraction of the neutral weak form factor FW(Q2=0.00616  GeV2)=0.368±0.013. Combined with our previous measurement, the extracted neutron skin thickness is Rn−Rp=0.283±0.071  fm. The result also yields the first significant direct measurement of the interior weak density of 208Pb: ρ0W=−0.0796±0.0036(exp)±0.0013(theo)  fm−3 leading to the interior baryon density ρ0b=0.1480±0.0036(exp)±0.0013(theo)  fm−3. The measurement accurately constrains the density dependence of the symmetry energy of nuclear matter near saturation density, with implications for the size and composition of neutron stars.
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more » ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Award ID(s):
1714792
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10276400
Journal Name:
Physical review letters
Volume:
126
Issue:
17
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
172502
ISSN:
0031-9007
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. We combine equation of state of dense matter up to twice nuclear saturation density (nsat = 0.16 fm−3 ) obtained using chiral effective field theory (χEFT), and recent observations of neutron stars to gain insights about the high-density matter encountered in their cores. A key element in our study is the recent Bayesian analysis of correlated EFT truncation errors based on order-byorder calculations up to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order in the χEFT expansion. We refine the bounds on the maximum mass imposed by causality at high densities, and provide stringent limits on the maximum and minimum radii of ∼ 1.4 M andmore »∼ 2.0 M stars. Including χEFT predictions from nsat to 2 nsat reduces the permitted ranges of the radius of a 1.4 M star, R1.4, by ∼ 3.5 km. If observations indicate R1.4 < 11.2 km, our study implies that either the squared speed of sound c 2 s > 1/2 for densities above 2 nsat, or that χEFT breaks down below 2 nsat. We also comment on the nature of the secondary compact object in GW190814 with mass ' 2.6 M , and discuss the implications of massive neutron stars > 2.1 M (2.6 M ) in future radio and gravitational-wave searches. Some form of strongly interacting matter with c 2 s > 0.35 (0.55) must be realized in the cores of such massive neutron stars. In the absence of phase transitions below 2 nsat, the small tidal deformability inferred from GW170817 lends support for the relatively small pressure predicted by χEFT for the baryon density nB in the range 1−2 nsat. Together they imply that the rapid stiffening required to support a high maximum mass should occur only when nB & 1.5 − 1.8 nsat.« less
  2. ABSTRACT We report a new equation of state (EoS) of cold and hot hyperonic matter constructed in the framework of the quark–meson-coupling (QMC-A) model. The QMC-A EoS yields results compatible with available nuclear physics constraints and astrophysical observations. It covers the range of temperatures from T = 0 to 100 MeV, entropies per particle S/A between 0 and 6, lepton fractions from YL = 0.0 to 0.6, and baryon number densities nB = 0.05–1.2 fm−3. Applications of the QMC-A EoS are made to cold neutron stars (NSs) and to hot proto-neutron stars (PNSs) in two scenarios: (i) lepton-rich matter with trapped neutrinos (PNS-I) and (ii) deleptonizedmore »chemically equilibrated matter (PNS-II). We find that the QMC-A model predicts hyperons in amounts growing with increasing temperature and density, thus suggesting not only their presence in PNS but also, most likely, in NS merger remnants. The nucleon–hyperon phase transition is studied through the adiabatic index and the speed of sound cs. We observe that the lowering of (cs/c)2 to and below the conformal limit of 1/3 is strongly correlated with the onset of hyperons. Rigid rotation of cold and hot stars, their moments of inertia and Kepler frequencies are also explored. The QMC-A model results are compared with two relativistic models, the chiral mean field model (CMF), and the generalized relativistic density functional (GRDF) with DD2 (nucleon-only) and DD2Y-T (full baryon octet) interactions. Similarities and differences are discussed.« less
  3. The long-awaited detection of a gravitational wave from the merger of a binary neutron star in August 2017 (GW170817) marks the beginning of the new field of multi-messenger gravitational wave astronomy. By exploiting the extracted tidal deformations of the two neutron stars from the late inspiral phase of GW170817, it is now possible to constrain several global properties of the equation of state of neutron star matter. However, the most interesting part of the high density and temperature regime of the equation of state is solely imprinted in the post-merger gravitational wave emission from the remnant hypermassive/supramassive neutron star. Thismore »regime was not observed in GW170817, but will possibly be detected in forthcoming events within the current observing run of the LIGO/VIRGO collaboration. Numerous numerical-relativity simulations of merging neutron star binaries have been performed during the last decades, and the emitted gravitational wave profiles and the interior structure of the generated remnants have been analysed in detail. The consequences of a potential appearance of a hadron-quark phase transition in the interior region of the produced hypermassive neutron star and the evolution of its underlying matter in the phase diagram of quantum cromo dynamics will be in the focus of this article. It will be shown that the different density/temperature regions of the equation of state can be severely constrained by a measurement of the spectral properties of the emitted post-merger gravitational wave signal from a future binary compact star merger event.« less
  4. In this review, we discuss the physical characteristics of the magnetic dual chiral density wave (MDCDW) phase of dense quark matter and argue why it is a promising candidate for the interior matter phase of neutron stars. The MDCDW condensate occurs in the presence of a magnetic field. It is a single-modulated chiral density wave characterized by two dynamically generated parameters: the fermion quasiparticle mass m and the condensate spatial modulation q. The lowest-Landau-level quasiparticle modes in the MDCDW system are asymmetric about the zero energy, a fact that leads to the topological properties and anomalous electric transport exhibited bymore »this phase. The topology makes the MDCDW phase robust against thermal phonon fluctuations, and as such, it does not display the Landau–Peierls instability, a staple feature of single-modulated inhomogeneous chiral condensates in three dimensions. The topology is also reflected in the presence of the electromagnetic chiral anomaly in the effective action and in the formation of hybridized propagating modes known as axion-polaritons. Taking into account that one of the axion-polaritons of this quark phase is gapped, we argue how incident γ-ray photons can be converted into gapped axion-polaritons in the interior of a magnetar star in the MDCDW phase leading the star to collapse, a phenomenon that can serve to explain the so-called missing pulsar problem in the galactic center.« less
  5. MDPI (Ed.)
    In this review, we discuss the physical characteristics of the magnetic dual chiral density wave (MDCDW) phase of dense quark matter and argue why it is a promising candidate for the interior matter phase of neutron stars. The MDCDW condensate occurs in the presence of a magnetic field. It is a single-modulated chiral density wave characterized by two dynamically generated parameters: the fermion quasiparticle mass m and the condensate spatial modulation q. The lowest-Landau-level quasiparticle modes in the MDCDW system are asymmetric about the zero energy, a fact that leads to the topological properties and anomalous electric transport exhibited bymore »this phase. The topology makes the MDCDW phase robust against thermal phonon fluctuations, and as such, it does not display the Landau–Peierls instability, a staple feature of single-modulated inhomogeneous chiral condensates in three dimensions. The topology is also reflected in the presence of the electromagnetic chiral anomaly in the effective action and in the formation of hybridized propagating modes known as axion-polaritons. Taking into account that one of the axion-polaritons of this quark phase is gapped, we argue how incident g-ray photons can be converted into gapped axion-polaritons in the interior of a magnetar star in the MDCDW phase leading the star to collapse, a phenomenon that can serve to explain the so-called missing pulsar problem in the galactic center.« less