- NSF-PAR ID:
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Journal of Materials Chemistry C
- Page Range / eLocation ID:
- 8975 to 8986
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Like their chemical counterparts, electrical synapses show complex dynamics such as rectification and voltage dependence that interact with other electrical processes in neurons. The consequences arising from these interactions for the electrical behavior of the synapse, and the dynamics they create, remain largely unexplored. Using a voltage-dependent electrical synapse between a descending modulatory projection neuron (MCN1) and a motor neuron (LG) in the crustacean stomatogastric ganglion, we find that the influence of the hyperpolarization-activated inward current ( I h ) is critical to the function of the electrical synapse. When we blocked I h with CsCl, the apparent voltage dependence of the electrical synapse shifted by 18.7 mV to more hyperpolarized voltages, placing the dynamic range of the electrical synapse outside of the range of voltages used by the LG motor neuron (−60.2 mV to −44.9 mV). With dual electrode current- and voltage-clamp recordings, we demonstrate that this voltage shift is not due to a change in the properties of the gap junction itself, but is a result of a sustained effect of I h on the presynaptic MCN1 axon terminal membrane potential. I h -induced depolarization of the axon terminal membrane potential increased the electrical postsynaptic potentials and currents. With I h present, the axon terminal resting membrane potential is depolarized, shifting the dynamic range of the electrical synapse toward the functional range of the motor neuron. We thus demonstrate that the function of an electrical synapse is critically influenced by a voltage-dependent ionic current ( I h ). NEW & NOTEWORTHY Electrical synapses and voltage-gated ionic currents are often studied independently from one another, despite mounting evidence that their interactions can alter synaptic behavior. We show that the hyperpolarization-activated inward ionic current shifts the voltage dependence of electrical synaptic transmission through its depolarizing effect on the membrane potential, enabling it to lie within the functional membrane potential range of a motor neuron. Thus, the electrical synapse’s function critically depends on the voltage-gated ionic current.more » « less
Electrochemical‐based memristors are highly attractive that are capable of nonvolatile analog tuning, long‐term state stability, low power consumption, device scalability, and fast switching speeds. Through the combination of film deposition techniques, i.e., vapor phase polymerization and screen printing, fabrication of a poly(4‐(6‐hexyl)‐4
H‐dithieno[3,2‐ b:2′,3′‐ d]pyrrole) (p6DTP)‐based synaptic‐emulating three‐terminal memristor is designed. Through voltage‐driven pulse programming, and square waves with an amplitude of 100 mV and duration of 100 msec, the device exhibits a power consumption of 1 pJmm−2per synaptic event. By analyzing the fundamental operational trends of the p6DTP‐based device, simple and advanced integrated applications can be demonstrated along with synaptic‐like responses. This effort is the first presentation of the vapor phase polymerization technique for any dithienopyrrole‐based monomers, along with the physical implementation of any memristive system as an advanced logical circuit, demonstrated here as a cascaded combinational logic gate.
A non‐volatile conjugated polymer‐based electrochemical memristor (cPECM), derived from sodium 4‐[(2,3‐dihydrothieno[3,4‐b][1,4]dioxin‐2‐yl)methoxy]butane‐2‐sulfonate (S‐EDOT), is fabricated through roll‐to‐roll printing and exhibited neuromorphic properties. The 3‐terminal device employed a “read” channel where conductivity of the water‐soluble, self‐doped S‐PEDOT is equated to synaptic weight and was electrically decoupled from the programming electrode. For the model system, a +2500 mV programming pulse of 100 ms duration resulted in a 0.136 μS resolution in conductivity change, giving over 1000 distinct conductivity states for one cycle. The minimum programming power requirements of the cPECM was 0.31 pJ mm−2and with advanced printing techniques, a 0.1 fJ requirement for a 20 μm device is achievable. The mathematical operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are demonstrated with a single cPECM, as well as the logic gates AND, OR, NAND, and NOR. This demonstration of a printed cPECM is the first step toward the implementation of a mass produced electrochemical memristor that combines information storage and processing and may allow for the realization of printable artificial neural networks.
null (Ed.)Pyramidal neurons in neocortex have complex input-output relationships that depend on their morphologies, ion channel distributions, and the nature of their inputs, but which cannot be replicated by simple integrate-and-fire models. The impedance properties of their dendritic arbors, such as resonance and phase shift, shape neuronal responses to synaptic inputs and provide intraneuronal functional maps reflecting their intrinsic dynamics and excitability. Experimental studies of dendritic impedance have shown that neocortical pyramidal tract neurons exhibit distance-dependent changes in resonance and impedance phase with respect to the soma. We, therefore, investigated how well several biophysically detailed multicompartment models of neocortical layer 5 pyramidal tract neurons reproduce the location-dependent impedance profiles observed experimentally. Each model tested here exhibited location-dependent impedance profiles, but most captured either the observed impedance amplitude or phase, not both. The only model that captured features from both incorporates hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels and a shunting current, such as that produced by Twik-related acid-sensitive K + (TASK) channels. TASK-like channel density in this model was proportional to local HCN channel density. We found that although this shunting current alone is insufficient to produce resonance or realistic phase response, it modulates all features of dendritic impedance, including resonance frequencies, resonance strength, synchronous frequencies, and total inductive phase. We also explored how the interaction of HCN channel current ( I h ) and a TASK-like shunting current shape synaptic potentials and produce degeneracy in dendritic impedance profiles, wherein different combinations of I h and shunting current can produce the same impedance profile. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We simulated chirp current stimulation in the apical dendrites of 5 biophysically detailed multicompartment models of neocortical pyramidal tract neurons and found that a combination of HCN channels and TASK-like channels produced the best fit to experimental measurements of dendritic impedance. We then explored how HCN and TASK-like channels can shape the dendritic impedance as well as the voltage response to synaptic currents.more » « less
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