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Title: What Causes Faint Solar Coronal Jets from Emerging Flux Regions in Coronal Holes?
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The Astrophysical Journal
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Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. Context. We investigate the chromospheric counterpart of small-scale coronal loops constituting a coronal bright point (CBP) and its response to a photospheric magnetic-flux increase accompanied by co-temporal CBP heating. Aims. The aim of this study is to simultaneously investigate the chromospheric and coronal layers associated with a CBP, and in so doing, provide further understanding on the heating of plasmas confined in small-scale loops. Methods. We used co-observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and Helioseismic Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, together with data from the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph taken in the H α and Ca  II 8542.1 Å lines. We also employed both linear force-free and potential field extrapolation models to investigate the magnetic topology of the CBP loops and the overlying corona, respectively. We used a new multi-layer spectral inversion technique to derive the temporal variations of the temperature of the H α loops (HLs). Results. We find that the counterpart of the CBP, as seen at chromospheric temperatures, is composed of a bundle of dark elongated features named in this work H α loops, which constitute an integral part of the CBP loop magnetic structure. An increase in the photospheric magnetic flux due to flux emergence is accompanied by a rise of the coronal emission of the CBP loops, that is a heating episode. We also observe enhanced chromospheric activity associated with the occurrence of new HLs and mottles. While the coronal emission and magnetic flux increases appear to be co-temporal, the response of the H α counterpart of the CBP occurs with a small delay of less than 3 min. A sharp temperature increase is found in one of the HLs and in one of the CBP footpoints estimated at 46% and 55% with respect to the pre-event values, also starting with a delay of less than 3 min following the coronal heating episode. The low-lying CBP loop structure remains non-potential for the entire observing period. The magnetic topological analysis of the overlying corona reveals the presence of a coronal null point at the beginning and towards the end of the heating episode. Conclusions. The delay in the response of the chromospheric counterpart of the CBP suggests that the heating may have occurred at coronal heights. 
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  3. Abstract

    The Airborne Infrared Spectrometer (AIR-Spec) offers an unprecedented opportunity to explore the near-infrared (NIR) wavelength range. It has been flown at two total solar eclipses, in 2017 and 2019. The wavelength range of the much-improved instrument on the second flight (2019 July 2) was shifted to cover two density-sensitive lines from Sxi. In this paper we study detailed diagnostics for temperature, electron density, and elemental abundances by comparing results from AIR-Spec slit positions above the east and west limbs with those from Hinode/EIS, the PolarCam detector, and SDO/AIA. We find very good agreement in the electron densities obtained from the EIS EUV line ratios, those from the NIR Sxiratio, and those obtained from the polarized brightness PolarCam measurements. Electron densities ranged from logNe[cm−3] = 8.4 near the limb to 7.2 atR0= 1.3. EIS spectra indicate that the temperature distribution above the west limb is near isothermal at around 1.3 MK, while that on the east has an additional higher-Tcomponent. The AIR-Spec radiances in Sixand Sxi, as well as the AIA data in the 171, 193, and 211 Å bands, are consistent with the EIS results. EIS and AIR-Spec data indicate that the sulfur abundance (relative to silicon) is photospheric in both regions, confirming our previous results of the 2017 eclipse. The AIA data also indicate that the absolute iron abundance is photospheric. Our analysis confirms the importance of the diagnostic potential of the NIR wavelength range and that this important wavelength range can be used reliably and independently to determine coronal plasma parameters.

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  5. Heavy ion signatures of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) indicate that rapid and strong heating takes place during the eruption and early stages of propagation. However, the nature of the heating that produces the highly ionized charge states often observed in situ is not fully constrained. An MHD simulation of the Bastille Day CME serves as a test bed to examine the origin and conditions of the formation of heavy ions evolving within the CME in connection with those observed during its passage at L1. In particular, we investigate the bimodal nature of the Fe charge state distribution, which is a quintessential heavy ion signature of CME substructure, as well as the source of the highly ionized plasma. We find that the main heating experienced by the tracked plasma structures linked to the ion signatures examined is due to field-aligned thermal conduction via shocked plasma at the CME front. Moreover, the bimodal Fe distributions can be generated through significant heating and rapid cooling of prominence material. However, although significant heating was achieved, the highest ionization stages of Fe ions observed in situ were not reproduced. In addition, the carbon and oxygen charge state distributions were not well replicated owing to anomalous heavy ion dropouts observed throughout the ejecta. Overall, the results indicate that additional ionization is needed to match observation. An important driver of ionization could come from suprathermal electrons, such as those produced via Fermi acceleration during reconnection, suggesting that the process is critical to the development and extended heating of extreme CME eruptions, like the Bastille Day CME. 
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