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Title: Balancing dipolar and exchange coupling in biradicals to maximize cross effect dynamic nuclear polarization
Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) by the cross effect (CE) has become a game changer for solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The efficiency of CE-DNP depends on the strength of the electron–electron coupling in biradical polarizing agents. Hence, the focus lately has been on designing biradicals with a large net exchange ( J ) and dipolar ( D ) coupling. In this study, we reveal that the crucial factor for CE-DNP is not the large sum, J + D , but rather the relative magnitude of J and D , expressed as the J / D ratio. We show that the mechanistic basis of this interference lies in the isotropic vs. the anisotropic nature of the J and D couplings, respectively. This interference can lead to a small (effective) electron–electron coupling for many orientations even when J + D is large, resulting in non-adiabatic rotor-events. We find that when 0 < | J / D | < 1 the CE-DNP efficiency is attenuated for the majority of orientations, with greater attenuation observed at higher magnetic fields and faster magic-angle spinning (MAS) frequency. The interference effect of J and D coupling introduced in this study can explain why many biradicals with more » high or comparable J + D still show significantly divergent DNP performances. We debut J / D as a consequential criteria for designing efficient biradicals to robustly perform across a large range of B 0 fields and MAS frequencies. « less
Authors:
; ;
Award ID(s):
2004217
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10284438
Journal Name:
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics
Volume:
22
Issue:
24
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
13569 to 13579
ISSN:
1463-9076
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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Fig. 3(b) shows the tunneling probability T according to the Kane two-band model in the three materials, In0.53Ga0.47As, GaAs, and GaN, following our observation of a similar electroluminescence mechanism in GaN/AlN RTDs (due to strong polarization field of wurtzite structures) [8]. The expression is Tinter = (2/9)∙exp[(-2 ∙Ug 2 ∙me)/(2h∙P∙E)], where Ug is the bandgap energy, P is the valence-to-conduction-band momentum matrix element, and E is the electric field. Values for the highest calculated internal E fields for the InGaAs and GaN are also shown, indicating that Tinter in those structures approaches values of ~10-5. As shown, a GaAs RTD would require an internal field of ~6×105 V/cm, which is rarely realized in standard GaAs RTDs, perhaps explaining why there have been few if any reports of room-temperature electroluminescence in the GaAs devices. [1] E.R. Brown,et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 58, 2291, 1991. [5] S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981). [2] M. Feiginov et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 99, 233506, 2011. [6] L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995). [3] Y. Nishida et al., Nature Sci. Reports, 9, 18125, 2019. [7] E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961). [4] P. Fakhimi, et al., 2019 DRC Conference Digest. [8] T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018). [5] S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981). [6] L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995). [7] E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961). [8] T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018).« less