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Title: Photogating-driven enhanced responsivity in few-layered ReSe2 phototransistor
A wide variety of two-dimensional (2D) metal dichalcogenide compounds have recently attracted much research interest due to their very high photoresponsivities (R) making them excellent candidates for optoelectronic applications. High R in 2D photoconductors is associated to trap state dynamics leading to a photogating effect, which is often manifested by a fractional power dependence (γ) of the photocurrent (I ph ) when under an effective illumination intensity (P eff ). Here we present photoconductivity studies as a function of gate voltages, over a wide temperature range (20 K to 300 K) of field-effect transistors fabricated using thin layers of mechanically exfoliated rhenium diselenide (ReSe 2 ). We obtain very high responsivities R ~ 16500 A/W and external quantum efficiency (EQE) ~ 3.2 x 10 6 % (at 140 K, V g = 60 V and P eff = 0.2 nW). A strong correlation between R and γ was established by investigating the dependence of these two quantities at various gate voltages and over a wide range of temperature. Such correlations indicate the importance of trap state mediated photogating and its role in promoting high photo responsivities in these materials. We believe such correlations can offer valuable insights for the design and development of high performance photoactive devices using 2D materials.  more » « less
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Journal of Materials Chemistry C
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National Science Foundation
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Fig. 3(b) shows the tunneling probability T according to the Kane two-band model in the three materials, In0.53Ga0.47As, GaAs, and GaN, following our observation of a similar electroluminescence mechanism in GaN/AlN RTDs (due to strong polarization field of wurtzite structures) [8]. The expression is Tinter = (2/9)∙exp[(-2 ∙Ug 2 ∙me)/(2h∙P∙E)], where Ug is the bandgap energy, P is the valence-to-conduction-band momentum matrix element, and E is the electric field. Values for the highest calculated internal E fields for the InGaAs and GaN are also shown, indicating that Tinter in those structures approaches values of ~10-5. As shown, a GaAs RTD would require an internal field of ~6×105 V/cm, which is rarely realized in standard GaAs RTDs, perhaps explaining why there have been few if any reports of room-temperature electroluminescence in the GaAs devices. [1] E.R. Brown,et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 58, 2291, 1991. [5] S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981). [2] M. Feiginov et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 99, 233506, 2011. [6] L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995). [3] Y. Nishida et al., Nature Sci. Reports, 9, 18125, 2019. [7] E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961). [4] P. Fakhimi, et al., 2019 DRC Conference Digest. [8] T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018). [5] S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981). [6] L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995). [7] E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961). [8] T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018). 
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