skip to main content


Title: RACK-LEVEL THERMOSYPHON COOLING AND VAPOR-COMPRESSION DRIVEN HEAT RECOVERY: CONDENSER MODEL
This paper is focused on the modeling of a brazed plate heat exchanger (BPHE) for a novel in-rack cooling loop coupled with heat recovery capability for enhanced thermal management of datacenters. In the proposed technology, the BPHE is acting as a condenser, and the model presented in this study can be applied in either the cooling loop or vapor recompression loop. Thus, the primary fluid enters as either superheated (in the vapor recompression loop) or saturated vapor (in the cooling loop), while the secondary fluid enters as a sub-cooled liquid. The model augments an existing technique from the open literature and is applied to condensation of a low-pressure refrigerant R245fa. The model assumes a two-fluid heat exchanger with R245fa and water as the primary and secondary fluids, respectively, flowing in counterflow configuration; however, the model can also handle parallel flow configuration. The 2-D model divides the heat exchanger geometry into a discrete number of slices to analyze heat transfer and pressure drops (including static, momentum and frictional losses) of both fluids, which are used to predict the exit temperature and pressure of both fluids. The model predicts the exchanger duty based on the local energy balance. The predicted values of fluid output properties (secondary fluid temperature and pressure, and primary fluid vapor quality and pressure) along with heat exchanger duty show good agreement when compared against a commercial software.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1738782
NSF-PAR ID:
10287017
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the ASME 2021 International Technical Conference and Exhibition on Packaging and Integration of Electronic and Photonic Microsystems InterPACK2021
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    This paper is focused on the modeling of a brazed plate heat exchanger (BPHE) for a novel in-rack cooling loop coupled with heat recovery capability for enhanced thermal management of datacenters. In the proposed technology, the BPHE is acting as a condenser, and the model presented in this study can be applied in either the cooling loop or vapor recompression loop. Thus, the primary fluid enters as either superheated (in the vapor recompression loop) or saturated vapor (in the cooling loop), while the secondary fluid enters as a sub-cooled liquid. The model augments an existing technique from the open literature and is applied to condensation of a low-pressure refrigerant R245fa. The model assumes a two-fluid heat exchanger with R245fa and water as the primary and secondary fluids, respectively, flowing in counterflow configuration; however, the model can also handle parallel flow configuration. The 2-D model divides the heat exchanger geometry into a discrete number of slices to analyze heat transfer and pressure drops (including static, momentum and frictional losses) of both fluids, which are used to predict the exit temperature and pressure of both fluids. The model predicts the exchanger duty based on the local energy balance. The predicted values of fluid output properties (secondary fluid temperature and pressure, and primary fluid vapor quality and pressure) along with heat exchanger duty show good agreement when compared against a commercial software.

     
    more » « less
  2. null (Ed.)
    An in-rack cooling system connected to an external vapor recompression loop can be an economical solution to harness waste heat recovery in data centers. Validated subsystem-level models of the thermosyphon cooling and recompression loops (evaporator, heat exchangers, compressor, etc.) are needed to predict overall system performance and to perform design optimization based on the operating conditions. This paper specifically focuses on the model of the evaporator, which is a finned-tube heat exchanger incorporated in a thermosyphon cooling loop. The fin-pack is divided into individual segments to analyze the refrigerant and air side heat transfer characteristics. Refrigerant flow in the tubes is modeled as 1-D flow scheme with transport equations solved on a staggered grid. The air side is modeled using differential equations to represent the air temperature and humidity ratio and to predict if moisture removal will occur, in which case the airside heat transfer coefficient is suitably reduced. The louver fins are modeled as individual hexagons and are treated in conjunction with the tube walls. A segment-by-segment approach is utilized for each tube and the heat exchanger geometry is subsequently evaluated from one end to the other, with air property changes considered for each subsequent row of tubes. Model predictions of stream outlet temperature and pressure, refrigerant outlet vapor quality and heat exchanger duty show good agreement when compared against a commercial software. 
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    An in-rack cooling system connected to an external vapor recompression loop can be an economical solution to harness waste heat recovery in data centers. Validated subsystem-level models of the thermosyphon cooling and recompression loops (evaporator, heat exchangers, compressor, etc.) are needed to predict overall system performance and to perform design optimization based on the operating conditions. This paper specifically focuses on the model of the evaporator, which is a finned-tube heat exchanger incorporated in a thermosyphon cooling loop. The fin-pack is divided into individual segments to analyze the refrigerant and air side heat transfer characteristics. Refrigerant flow in the tubes is modeled as 1-D flow scheme with transport equations solved on a staggered grid. The air side is modeled using differential equations to represent the air temperature and humidity ratio and to predict if moisture removal will occur, in which case the airside heat transfer coefficient is suitably reduced. The louver fins are modeled as individual hexagons and are treated in conjunction with the tube walls. A segment-by-segment approach is utilized for each tube and the heat exchanger geometry is subsequently evaluated from one end to the other, with air property changes considered for each subsequent row of tubes. Model predictions of stream outlet temperature and pressure, refrigerant outlet vapor quality and heat exchanger duty show good agreement when compared against a commercial software.

     
    more » « less
  4. Data Center hybrid air/liquid cooling systems such as rear door heat exchangers, overhead and in row cooling systems enable localized, on-demand cooling, or “smart cooling.” At the heart of all hybrid cooling systems is an air to liquid cross flow heat exchanger that regulates the amount of cooling delivered by the system by modulating the liquid or air flows and/or temperatures. Due the central role that the heat exchanger plays in the system response, understanding the transient response of the heat exchanger is crucial for the precise control of hybrid cooling system. This paper reports on the transient experimental characterization of heat exchangers used in data centers applications. An experimental rig designed to introduce controlled transient perturbations in temperature and flow on the inlet air and liquid flow streams of a 12 in. × 12 in. heat exchanger test core is discussed. The conditioned air is delivered to the test core by a suction wind tunnel with upstream air heaters and a frequency variable axial blower to allow the control of air flow rate and bulk temperature. The conditioned water is delivered to the test core by a water delivery system consisting of two separate water circuits, one delivering cold water, and the other hot water. By switching from one circuit to the other or mixing water from both circuits, the rig is capable of generating step, ramp and frequency perturbations in water temperature at constant flow or step, ramp or frequency perturbations in water flow at constant temperature or combinations of temperature and water flow perturbations. Experimental data are presented for a 12×12 heat exchanger core with a single liquid pass under different transient perturbations 
    more » « less
  5. The most common approach to air cooling of data centers involves the pressurization of the plenum beneath the raised floor and delivery of air flow to racks via perforated floor tiles. This cooling approach is thermodynamically inefficient due in large part to the pressure losses through the tiles. Furthermore, it is difficult to control flow at the aisle and rack level since the flow source is centralized rather than distributed. Distributed cooling systems are more closely coupled to the heat generating racks. In overhead cooling systems, one can distribute flow to distinct aisles by placing the air mover and water cooled heat exchanger directly above an aisle. Two arrangements are possible: (i.) placing the air mover and heat exchanger above the cold aisle and forcing downward flow of cooled air into the cold aisle (Overhead Downward Flow (ODF)), or (ii.) placing the air mover and heat exchanger above the hot aisle and forcing heated air upwards from the hot aisle through the water cooled heat exchanger (Overhead Upward Flow (OUF)). This study focuses on the steady and transient behavior of overhead cooling systems in both ODF and OUF configurations and compares their cooling effectiveness and energy efficiency. The flow and heat transfer inside the servers and heat exchangers are modeled using physics based approaches that result in differential equation based mathematical descriptions. These models are programmed in the MATLAB™ language and embedded within a CFD computational environment (using the commercial code FLUENT™) that computes the steady or instantaneous airflow distribution. The complete computational model is able to simulate the complete flow and thermal field in the airside, the instantaneous temperatures within and pressure drops through the servers, and the instantaneous temperatures within and pressure drops through the overhead cooling system. Instantaneous overall energy consumption (1st Law) and exergy destruction (2nd Law) were used to quantify overall energy efficiency and to identify inefficiencies within the two systems. The server cooling effectiveness, based on an effectiveness-NTU model for the servers, was used to assess the cooling effectiveness of the two overhead cooling approaches 
    more » « less