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  1. Abstract

    Impingement split flow liquid-cooled microchannel cold plates are one of several flow configurations used for single-phase liquid cooling. Split flow or top-in/side-exit (TISE) cold plates divide the flow into two branches thus resulting in halved or reduced flow rates and flow lengths, compared to traditional side-in /side-exit (SISE) or parallel flow cold plates. This has the effect of reducing the pressure drop because of the shorter flow length and lower flow rate and increasing the heat transfer coefficient due to thermally developing as opposed to fully developed flow. It is also claimed that the impinging flow increases the heat transfer coefficient on the base plate in the region of impingement. Because of the downward impinging and turning flow, there are no exact analytical models for this flow configuration. Computational and experimental studies have been performed, but there are no useful compact analytical models in the literature that can be used to predict the performance of these impingement cold plates. Results are presented for novel physics-based laminar flow models for a TISE microchannel cold plate based on an equivalent parallel channel flow approach. We show that the new models accurately predict the thermal-hydraulic performance over a wide range of parameters.

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  2. Abstract

    This paper is focused on the modeling of a brazed plate heat exchanger (BPHE) for a novel in-rack cooling loop coupled with heat recovery capability for enhanced thermal management of datacenters. In the proposed technology, the BPHE is acting as a condenser, and the model presented in this study can be applied in either the cooling loop or vapor recompression loop. Thus, the primary fluid enters as either superheated (in the vapor recompression loop) or saturated vapor (in the cooling loop), while the secondary fluid enters as a sub-cooled liquid. The model augments an existing technique from the open literature and is applied to condensation of a low-pressure refrigerant R245fa. The model assumes a two-fluid heat exchanger with R245fa and water as the primary and secondary fluids, respectively, flowing in counterflow configuration; however, the model can also handle parallel flow configuration. The 2-D model divides the heat exchanger geometry into a discrete number of slices to analyze heat transfer and pressure drops (including static, momentum and frictional losses) of both fluids, which are used to predict the exit temperature and pressure of both fluids. The model predicts the exchanger duty based on the local energy balance. The predicted values of fluid output properties (secondary fluid temperature and pressure, and primary fluid vapor quality and pressure) along with heat exchanger duty show good agreement when compared against a commercial software.

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  3. Abstract

    An in-rack cooling system connected to an external vapor recompression loop can be an economical solution to harness waste heat recovery in data centers. Validated subsystem-level models of the thermosyphon cooling and recompression loops (evaporator, heat exchangers, compressor, etc.) are needed to predict overall system performance and to perform design optimization based on the operating conditions. This paper specifically focuses on the model of the evaporator, which is a finned-tube heat exchanger incorporated in a thermosyphon cooling loop. The fin-pack is divided into individual segments to analyze the refrigerant and air side heat transfer characteristics. Refrigerant flow in the tubes is modeled as 1-D flow scheme with transport equations solved on a staggered grid. The air side is modeled using differential equations to represent the air temperature and humidity ratio and to predict if moisture removal will occur, in which case the airside heat transfer coefficient is suitably reduced. The louver fins are modeled as individual hexagons and are treated in conjunction with the tube walls. A segment-by-segment approach is utilized for each tube and the heat exchanger geometry is subsequently evaluated from one end to the other, with air property changes considered for each subsequent row of tubes. Model predictions of stream outlet temperature and pressure, refrigerant outlet vapor quality and heat exchanger duty show good agreement when compared against a commercial software.

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  4. Abstract

    This paper introduces a novel thermal management solution coupling in-rack cooling and heat recovery system. System-level modeling capabilities are the key to design and analyze thermal performance for different applications. In this study, a semi-empirical model for a hermetically sealed scroll compressor is developed and applied to different scroll geometries. The model parameters are tuned and validated such that the model is applicable to a variety of working fluids. The identified parameters are split into two groups: one group is dependent on the compressor geometry and independent of working fluid, whereas the other group is fluid dependent. By modifying the fluid-dependent parameters using the specific heat ratios of two refrigerants, the model shows promise in predicting the refrigerant mass flow rate, discharge temperature and compressor shaft power of a third refrigerant. Here, the approach has been applied using data for two refrigerants (R22 and R134a) to achieve predictions for a third refrigerant’s (R407c) mass flow rate, discharge temperature, and compressor shaft power, with normalized root mean square errors of 0.01, 0.04 and 0.020, respectively. The normalization is performed based on the minimum and maximum values of the measured variable data. The technique thus presented in this study can be used to accurately predict the primary variables of interest for a scroll compressor running on a given refrigerant for which data may be limited, enabling component-level design or analysis for different operating conditions and system requirements.

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  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  8. Abstract Physics-based modeling aids in designing efficient data center power and cooling systems. These systems have traditionally been modeled independently under the assumption that the inherent coupling of effects between the systems has negligible impact. This study tests the assumption through uncertainty quantification of models for a typical 300 kW data center supplied through either an alternating current (AC)-based or direct current (DC)-based power distribution system. A novel calculation scheme is introduced that couples the calculations of these two systems to estimate the resultant impact on predicted power usage effectiveness (PUE), computer room air conditioning (CRAC) return temperature, total system power requirement, and system power loss values. A two-sample z-test for comparing means is used to test for statistical significance with 95% confidence. The power distribution component efficiencies are calibrated to available published and experimental data. The predictions for a typical data center with an AC-based system suggest that the coupling of system calculations results in statistically significant differences for the cooling system PUE, the overall PUE, the CRAC return air temperature, and total electrical losses. However, none of the tested metrics are statistically significant for a DC-based system. The predictions also suggest that a DC-based system provides statistically significant lower overall PUE and electrical losses compared to the AC-based system, but only when coupled calculations are used. These results indicate that the coupled calculations impact predicted general energy efficiency metrics and enable statistically significant conclusions when comparing different data center cooling and power distribution strategies. 
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