skip to main content

Title: Periodicities in an active region correlated with Type III radio bursts observed by Parker Solar Probe
Context. Periodicities have frequently been reported across many wavelengths in the solar corona. Correlated periods of ~5 min, comparable to solar p -modes, are suggestive of coupling between the photosphere and the corona. Aims. Our study investigates whether there are correlations in the periodic behavior of Type III radio bursts which are indicative of nonthermal electron acceleration processes, and coronal extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission used to assess heating and cooling in an active region when there are no large flares. Methods. We used coordinated observations of Type III radio bursts from the FIELDS instrument on Parker Solar Probe (PSP), of EUV emissions by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and white light observations by SDO Helioseismic and Magnetic Image (HMI), and of solar flare X-rays by Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) on April 12, 2019. Several methods for assessing periodicities are utilized and compared to validate periods obtained. Results. Periodicities of ~5 min in the EUV in several areas of an active region are well correlated with the repetition rate of the Type III radio bursts observed on both PSP and Wind. Detrended 211 and 171 Å light curves show periodic profiles in multiple locations, with 171 more » Å peaks sometimes lagging those seen in 211 Å. This is suggestive of impulsive events that result in heating and then cooling in the lower corona. NuSTAR X-rays provide evidence for at least one microflare during the interval of Type III bursts, but there is not a one-to-one correspondence between the X-rays and the Type III bursts. Our study provides evidence for periodic acceleration of nonthermal electrons (required to generate Type III radio bursts) when there were no observable flares either in the X-ray data or the EUV. The acceleration process, therefore, must be associated with small impulsive events, perhaps nanoflares. « less
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Astronomy & Astrophysics
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    To facilitate the study of solar flares and active regions, we have created a modeling framework, the freely distributed GX Simulator IDL package, that combines 3D magnetic and plasma structures with thermal and nonthermal models of the chromosphere, transition region, and corona. Its object-based modular architecture, which runs on Windows, Mac, and Unix/Linux platforms, offers the ability to either import 3D density and temperature distribution models, or to assign numerically defined coronal or chromospheric temperatures and densities, or their distributions, to each individual voxel. GX Simulator can apply parametric heating models involving average properties of the magnetic field lines crossing a given voxel, as well as compute and investigate the spatial and spectral properties of radio, (sub)millimeter, EUV, and X-ray emissions calculated from the model, and quantitatively compare them with observations. The package includes a fully automatic model production pipeline that, based on minimal users input, downloads the required SDO/HMI vector magnetic field data, performs potential or nonlinear force-free field extrapolations, populates the magnetic field skeleton with parameterized heated plasma coronal models that assume either steady-state or impulsive plasma heating, and generates non-LTE density and temperature distribution models of the chromosphere that are constrained by photospheric measurements. The standardizedmore »models produced by this pipeline may be further customized through specialized IDL scripts, or a set of interactive tools provided by the graphical user interface. Here, we describe the GX Simulator framework and its applications.

    « less
  2. Abstract In this paper, we report the observed temporal correlation between extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) emission and magneto-acoustic oscillations in an EUV moss region, which is the footpoint region only connected by magnetic loops with million-degree plasma. The result is obtained from a detailed multi-wavelength data analysis of the region with the purpose of resolving fine-scale mass and energy flows that come from the photosphere, pass through the chromosphere and finally heat the solar transition region or the corona. The data set covers three atmospheric levels on the Sun, consisting of high-resolution broad-band imaging at TiO 7057 Å and the line of sight magnetograms for the photosphere, high-resolution narrow-band images at helium i 10830 Å for the chromosphere and EUV images at 171 Å for the corona. The 10830 Å narrow-band images and the TiO 7057 Å broad-band images are from a much earlier observation on 2012 July 22 with the 1.6 meter aperture Goode Solar Telescope (GST) at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) and the EUV 171 Å images and the magnetograms are from observations made by Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) or Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). We report the following new phenomena: (1) Repeatedmore »injections of chromospheric material appearing as 10830 Å absorption are squirted out from inter-granular lanes with a period of ∼ 5 minutes. (2) EUV emissions are found to be periodically modulated with similar periods of ∼ 5 minutes. (3) Around the injection area where 10830 Å absorption is enhanced, both EUV emissions and strength of the magnetic field are remarkably stronger. (4) The peaks on the time profile of the EUV emissions are found to be in sync with oscillatory peaks of the stronger magnetic field in the region. These findings may give a series of strong evidences supporting the scenario that coronal heating is powered by magneto-acoustic waves.« less
  3. Abstract Extreme-ultraviolet late phase (ELP) refers to the second extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) radiation enhancement observed in certain solar flares, which usually occurs tens of minutes to several hours after the peak of soft X-ray emission. The coronal loop system that hosts the ELP emission is often different from the main flaring arcade, and the enhanced EUV emission therein may imply an additional heating process. However, the origin of the ELP remains rather unclear. Here we present the analysis of a C1.4 flare that features such an ELP, which is also observed in microwave wavelengths by the Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array. Similar to the case of the ELP, we find a gradual microwave enhancement that occurs about 3 minutes after the main impulsive phase microwave peaks. Radio sources coincide with both foot points of the ELP loops and spectral fits on the time-varying microwave spectra demonstrate a clear deviation of the electron distribution from the Maxwellian case, which could result from injected nonthermal electrons or nonuniform heating to the footpoint plasma. We further point out that the delayed microwave enhancement suggests the presence of an additional heating process, which could be responsible for the evaporation of heated plasma that fills themore »ELP loops, producing the prolonged ELP emission.« less
  4. Abstract

    Solar type III radio bursts are generated by beams of energetic electrons that travel along open magnetic field lines through the corona and into interplanetary space. However, understanding the source of these electrons and how they escape into interplanetary space remains an outstanding topic. Here we report multi-instrument, multiperspective observations of an interplanetary type III radio burst event shortly after the second perihelion of the Parker Solar Probe (PSP). This event was associated with a solar jet that produced an impulsive microwave burst event recorded by the Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array. The type III burst event also coincided with the detection of enhanced in situ energetic electrons recorded by both PSP at 0.37 au and WIND at 1 au, which were located very closely on the Parker spiral longitudinally. The close timing association and magnetic connectivity suggest that the in situ energetic electrons originated from the jet’s magnetic reconnection region. Intriguingly, microwave imaging spectroscopy results suggest that the escaping energetic electrons were injected into a large opening angle of about 90°, which is at least nine times broader than the apparent width of the jet spire. Our findings provide an interpretation for the previously reported, longitudinally broad spatialmore »distribution of flare locations associated with prompt energetic electron events and have important implications for understanding the origin and distribution of energetic electrons in interplanetary space.

    « less
  5. Aims. We aim to constrain the acceleration, injection, and transport processes of flare-accelerated energetic electrons by comparing their characteristics at the Sun with those injected into interplanetary space. Methods. We have identified 17 energetic electron events well-observed with the SEPT instrument aboard STEREO which show a clear association with a hard X-ray (HXR) flare observed with the RHESSI spacecraft. We compare the spectral indices of the RHESSI HXR spectra with those of the interplanetary electrons. Because of the frequent double-power-law shape of the in situ electron spectra, we paid special attention to the choice of the spectral index used for comparison. Results. The time difference between the electron onsets and the associated type III and microwave bursts suggests that the electron events are detected at 1 AU with apparent delays ranging from 9 to 41 min. While the parent solar activity is clearly impulsive, also showing a high correlation with extreme ultraviolet jets, most of the studied events occur in temporal coincidence with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In spite of the observed onset delays and presence of CMEs in the low corona, we find a significant correlation of about 0.8 between the spectral indices of the HXR flare and themore »in situ electrons. The correlations increase if only events with significant anisotropy are considered. This suggests that transport effects can alter the injected spectra leading to a strongly reduced imprint of the flare acceleration. Conclusions. We conclude that interplanetary transport effects must be taken into account when inferring the initial acceleration of solar energetic electron events. Although our results suggest a clear imprint of flare acceleration for the analyzed event sample, a secondary acceleration might be present which could account for the observed delays. However, the limited and variable pitch-angle coverage of SEPT could also be the reason for the observed delays.« less