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  1. Aims. We aim to constrain the acceleration, injection, and transport processes of flare-accelerated energetic electrons by comparing their characteristics at the Sun with those injected into interplanetary space. Methods. We have identified 17 energetic electron events well-observed with the SEPT instrument aboard STEREO which show a clear association with a hard X-ray (HXR) flare observed with the RHESSI spacecraft. We compare the spectral indices of the RHESSI HXR spectra with those of the interplanetary electrons. Because of the frequent double-power-law shape of the in situ electron spectra, we paid special attention to the choice of the spectral index used for comparison. Results. The time difference between the electron onsets and the associated type III and microwave bursts suggests that the electron events are detected at 1 AU with apparent delays ranging from 9 to 41 min. While the parent solar activity is clearly impulsive, also showing a high correlation with extreme ultraviolet jets, most of the studied events occur in temporal coincidence with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In spite of the observed onset delays and presence of CMEs in the low corona, we find a significant correlation of about 0.8 between the spectral indices of the HXR flare and themore »in situ electrons. The correlations increase if only events with significant anisotropy are considered. This suggests that transport effects can alter the injected spectra leading to a strongly reduced imprint of the flare acceleration. Conclusions. We conclude that interplanetary transport effects must be taken into account when inferring the initial acceleration of solar energetic electron events. Although our results suggest a clear imprint of flare acceleration for the analyzed event sample, a secondary acceleration might be present which could account for the observed delays. However, the limited and variable pitch-angle coverage of SEPT could also be the reason for the observed delays.« less
  2. ABSTRACT We investigate the spatial, temporal, and spectral properties of 10 microflares from AR12721 on 2018 September 9 and 10 observed in X-rays using the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope ARray and the Solar Dynamic Observatory’s Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager. We find GOES sub-A class equivalent microflare energies of 1026–1028 erg reaching temperatures up to 10 MK with consistent quiescent or hot active region (AR) core plasma temperatures of 3–4 MK. One microflare (SOL2018-09-09T10:33), with an equivalent GOES class of A0.1, has non-thermal hard X-ray emission during its impulsive phase (of non-thermal power ∼7 × 1024 erg s−1) making it one of the faintest X-ray microflares to have direct evidence for accelerated electrons. In 4 of the 10 microflares, we find that the X-ray time profile matches fainter and more transient sources in the extreme-ultraviolet, highlighting the need for observations sensitive to only the hottest material that reaches temperatures higher than those of the AR core (>5 MK). Evidence for corresponding photospheric magnetic flux cancellation/emergence present at the footpoints of eight microflares is also observed.
  3. Context. Periodicities have frequently been reported across many wavelengths in the solar corona. Correlated periods of ~5 min, comparable to solar p -modes, are suggestive of coupling between the photosphere and the corona. Aims. Our study investigates whether there are correlations in the periodic behavior of Type III radio bursts which are indicative of nonthermal electron acceleration processes, and coronal extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission used to assess heating and cooling in an active region when there are no large flares. Methods. We used coordinated observations of Type III radio bursts from the FIELDS instrument on Parker Solar Probe (PSP), of EUV emissions by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and white light observations by SDO Helioseismic and Magnetic Image (HMI), and of solar flare X-rays by Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) on April 12, 2019. Several methods for assessing periodicities are utilized and compared to validate periods obtained. Results. Periodicities of ~5 min in the EUV in several areas of an active region are well correlated with the repetition rate of the Type III radio bursts observed on both PSP and Wind. Detrended 211 and 171 Å light curves show periodic profiles in multiple locations, with 171more »Å peaks sometimes lagging those seen in 211 Å. This is suggestive of impulsive events that result in heating and then cooling in the lower corona. NuSTAR X-rays provide evidence for at least one microflare during the interval of Type III bursts, but there is not a one-to-one correspondence between the X-rays and the Type III bursts. Our study provides evidence for periodic acceleration of nonthermal electrons (required to generate Type III radio bursts) when there were no observable flares either in the X-ray data or the EUV. The acceleration process, therefore, must be associated with small impulsive events, perhaps nanoflares.« less
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