- Award ID(s):
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Page Range / eLocation ID:
- 152 to 162
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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The purpose of this study was to use 3D motion capture and stretchable soft robotic sensors (SRS) to collect foot-ankle movement on participants performing walking gait cycles on flat and sloped surfaces. The primary aim was to assess differences between 3D motion capture and a new SRS-based wearable solution. Given the complex nature of using a linear solution to accurately quantify the movement of triaxial joints during a dynamic gait movement, 20 participants performing multiple walking trials were measured. The participant gait data was then upscaled (for the SRS), time-aligned (based on right heel strikes), and smoothed using filtering methods. A multivariate linear model was developed to assess goodness-of-fit based on mean absolute error (MAE; 1.54), root mean square error (RMSE; 1.96), and absolute R2 (R2; 0.854). Two and three SRS combinations were evaluated to determine if similar fit scores could be achieved using fewer sensors. Inversion (based on MAE and RMSE) and plantar flexion (based on R2) sensor removal provided second-best fit scores. Given that the scores indicate a high level of fit, with further development, an SRS-based wearable solution has the potential to measure motion during gait- based tasks with the accuracy of a 3D motion capture system.more » « less
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Abstract Lower limb joint kinematics have been measured in laboratory settings using fixed camera-based motion capture systems; however, recently inertial measurement units (IMUs) have been developed as an alternative. The purpose of this study was to test a quaternion conversion (QC) method for calculating the three orthogonal knee angles during the high velocities associated with a jump landing using commercially available IMUs. Nine cadaveric knee specimens were instrumented with APDM Opal IMUs to measure knee kinematics in one-legged 3–4× bodyweight simulated jump landings, four of which were used in establishing the parameters (training) for the new method and five for validation (testing). We compared the angles obtained from the QC method to those obtained from a commercially available sensor and algorithm (APDM Opal) with those calculated from an active marker motion capture system. Results showed a significant difference between both IMU methods and the motion capture data in the majority of orthogonal angles (p < 0.01), though the differences between the QC method and Certus system in the testing set for flexion and rotation angles were smaller than the APDM Opal algorithm, indicating an improvement. Additionally, in all three directions, both the limits of agreement and root-mean-square error between the QC method and the motion capture system were smaller than between the commercial algorithm and the motion capture.more » « less
Abstract This paper presents a new two-step design procedure and preliminary kinematic evaluation of a novel, passive, six-bar knee-ankle-foot orthosis (KAFO). The kinematic design and preliminary kinematic gait analysis of the KAFO are based on motion capture data from a single healthy male subject. Preliminary kinematic evaluation shows that the designed passive KAFO is capable of supporting flexion and extension of the knee joint during stance and swing phases of walking. The two-step design procedure for the KAFO consists of (1) computational synthesis based on user's motion data and (2) performance optimization. In the computational synthesis step, first the lower leg (knee-ankle-foot) of the subject is approximated as a 2R kinematic chain and its target trajectories are specified from motion capture data. Six-bar linkages are synthesized to coordinate the angular movements of knee and ankle joints of the 2R chain at 11 accuracy points. The first step of the design procedure yields 332 six-bar KAFO design candidates. This is followed by a performance optimization step in which the KAFO design candidates are optimally modified to satisfy specified constraints on end-effector trajectory and shape. This two-step process yields an optimally designed passive six-bar KAFO that shows promising kinematic results at the knee joint of the user during walking. The preliminary prototype manufactured is cost effective, easy to operate, and suitably demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed concept.more » « less
Quadriceps weakness is common after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and can alter gait mechanics. Functional resistance training (FRT) is a novel approach to retraining strength after injury, but it is unclear how it alters gait mechanics. Therefore, we tested how 3 different types of FRT devices: a knee brace resisting extension (unidirectional brace), a knee brace resisting extension and flexion (bidirectional brace), and an elastic band pulling backwards on the ankle (elastic band)–acutely alter gait kinetics in this population.
The type of FRT device will affect ground-reaction forces (GRFs) during and after the training. Specifically, the uni- and bidirectional braces will increase GRFs when compared with the elastic band.
Level of Evidence:
A total of 15 individuals with ACL reconstruction received FRT with each device over 3 separate randomized sessions. During training, participants walked on a treadmill while performing a tracking task with visual feedback. Sessions contained 5 training trials (180 seconds each) with rest between. Vertical and anterior-posterior GRFs were assessed on the ACL-reconstructed leg before, during, and after training. Changes in GRFs were compared across devices using 1-dimensional statistical parametric mapping.
Resistance applied via bidirectional brace acutely increased gait kinetics during terminal stance/pre-swing (ie, push-off), while resistance applied via elastic band acutely increased gait kinetics during initial contact/loading (ie, braking). Both braces behaved similarly, but the unidirectional brace was less effective for increasing push-off GRFs.
FRT after ACL reconstruction can acutely alter gait kinetics during training. Devices can be applied to selectively alter gait kinetics. However, the long-term effects of FRT after ACL reconstruction with these devices are still unknown.
FRT may be applied to alter gait kinetics of the involved limb after ACL reconstruction, depending on the device used.