- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 1305 to 1314
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Angiotensin II type 1 receptor mediates pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular remodeling induced by inhaled nicotineUse of electronic cigarettes is rapidly increasing among youth and young adults, but little is known regarding the long-term cardiopulmonary health impacts of these nicotine-containing devices. Our group has previously demonstrated that chronic, inhaled nicotine induces pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular (RV) remodeling in mice. These changes were associated with upregulated RV angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) have been shown to reverse cigarette smoking-induced PH in rats. ACE inhibitor and ARB use in a large retrospective cohort of patients with PH is associated with improved survival. Here, we utilized losartan (an ARB specific for angiotensin II type 1 receptor) to further explore nicotine-induced PH. Male C57BL/6 mice received nicotine vapor for 12 h/day, and exposure was assessed using serum cotinine to achieve levels comparable to human smokers or electronic cigarette users. Mice were exposed to nicotine for 8 wk and a subset was treated with losartan via an osmotic minipump. Cardiac function was assessed using echocardiography and catheterization. Although nicotine exposure increased angiotensin II in the RV and lung, this finding was nonsignificant. Chronic, inhaled nicotine significantly increased RV systolic pressure and RV free wall thickness versus air control. These parameters were significantly lower in mice receiving bothmore »
Diastolic dysfunction is a common pathology occurring in about one third of patients affected by heart failure. This condition may not be associated with a marked decrease in cardiac output or systemic pressure and therefore is more difficult to diagnose than its systolic counterpart. Compromised relaxation or increased stiffness of the left ventricle induces an increase in the upstream pulmonary pressures, and is classified as secondary or group II pulmonary hypertension (2018 Nice classification). This may result in an increase in the right ventricular afterload leading to right ventricular failure. Elevated pulmonary pressures are therefore an important clinical indicator of diastolic heart failure (sometimes referred to as heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, HFpEF), showing significant correlation with associated mortality. However, accurate measurements of this quantity are typically obtained through invasive catheterization and after the onset of symptoms. In this study, we use the hemodynamic consistency of a differential-algebraic circulation model to predict pulmonary pressures in adult patients from other, possibly non-invasive, clinical data. We investigate several aspects of the problem, including the ability of model outputs to represent a sufficiently wide pathologic spectrum, the identifiability of the model's parameters, and the accuracy of the predicted pulmonary pressures. We alsomore »
4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance recovery profiles following pulmonary endarterectomy in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension
Four-dimensional flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (4D flow CMR) allows comprehensive assessment of pulmonary artery (PA) flow dynamics. Few studies have characterized longitudinal changes in pulmonary flow dynamics and right ventricular (RV) recovery following a pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) for patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). This can provide novel insights of RV and PA dynamics during recovery. We investigated the longitudinal trajectory of 4D flow metrics following a PEA including velocity, vorticity, helicity, and PA vessel wall stiffness.
Twenty patients with CTEPH underwent pre-PEA and > 6 months post-PEA CMR imaging including 4D flow CMR; right heart catheter measurements were performed in 18 of these patients. We developed a semi-automated pipeline to extract integrated 4D flow-derived main, left, and right PA (MPA, LPA, RPA) volumes, velocity flow profiles, and secondary flow profiles. We focused on secondary flow metrics of vorticity, volume fraction of positive helicity (clockwise rotation), and the helical flow index (HFI) that measures helicity intensity.
Mean PA pressures (mPAP), total pulmonary resistance (TPR), and normalized RV end-systolic volume (RVESV) decreased significantly post-PEA (P < 0.002). 4D flow-derived PA volumes decreased (P < 0.001) and stiffness, velocity, and vorticity increased (P < 0.01) post-PEA. Longitudinal improvements from pre- to post-PEA in mPAP were associatedmore »
We developed a semi-automated pipeline for analyzing 4D flow metrics of vessel stiffness and flow profiles. PEA was associated with changes in 4D flow metrics of PA flow profiles and vessel stiffness. Longitudinal analysis revealed that PA helicity was associated with pulmonary remodeling and RV reverse remodeling following a PEA.
Computational models of ventricular mechanics and adaptation in response to right-ventricular pressure overloadPulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is associated with substantial remodeling of the right ventricle (RV), which may at first be compensatory but at a later stage becomes detrimental to RV function and patient survival. Unlike the left ventricle (LV), the RV remains understudied, and with its thin-walled crescent shape, it is often modeled simply as an appendage of the LV. Furthermore, PAH diagnosis is challenging because it often leaves the LV and systemic circulation largely unaffected. Several treatment strategies such as atrial septostomy, right ventricular assist devices (RVADs) or RV resynchronization therapy have been shown to improve RV function and the quality of life in patients with PAH. However, evidence of their long-term efficacy is limited and lung transplantation is still the most effective and curative treatment option. As such, the clinical need for improved diagnosis and treatment of PAH drives a strong need for increased understanding of drivers and mechanisms of RV growth and remodeling (G&R), and more generally for targeted research into RV mechanics pathology. Computational models stand out as a valuable supplement to experimental research, offering detailed analysis of the drivers and consequences of G&R, as well as a virtual test bench for exploring and refining hypotheses ofmore »
Distinct time courses and mechanics of right ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic stiffening in a male rat model of pulmonary arterial hypertensionAlthough pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) leads to right ventricle (RV) hypertrophy and structural remodeling, the relative contributions of changes in myocardial geometric and mechanical properties to systolic and diastolic chamber dysfunction and their time courses remain unknown. Using measurements of RV hemodynamic and morphological changes over 10 wk in a male rat model of PAH and a mathematical model of RV mechanics, we discriminated the contributions of RV geometric remodeling and alterations of myocardial material properties to changes in systolic and diastolic chamber function. Significant and rapid RV hypertrophic wall thickening was sufficient to stabilize ejection fraction in response to increased pulmonary arterial pressure by week 4 without significant changes in systolic myofilament activation. After week 4, RV end-diastolic pressure increased significantly with no corresponding changes in end-diastolic volume. Significant RV diastolic chamber stiffening by week 5 was not explained by RV hypertrophy. Instead, model analysis showed that the increases in RV end-diastolic chamber stiffness were entirely attributable to increased resting myocardial material stiffness that was not associated with significant myocardial fibrosis or changes in myocardial collagen content or type. These findings suggest that whereas systolic volume in this model of RV pressure overload is stabilized by early RV hypertrophy,more »