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Title: Incident-angle dependent operando XAS cell design: investigation of the electrochemical cells under operating conditions at various incidence angles
An operando characterization of electrode materials under electrochemical reaction conditions is important for their further development. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) presents a unique opportunity in this regard as the absence of a vacuum chamber in this technique makes it possible to collect spectroscopy data using user-designed operando cells. In the current study, the design and performance of an operando XAS cell are evaluated for characterizing solid oxide electrolysis cell working electrodes under a reaction environment that mimics high-temperature ammonia production conditions from H 2 O and N 2 . Sr 2 FeMoO 6−x N x (SFMON)-type double perovskite oxides were used as the cathode materials in these experiments. The operando cell contained a sample stage with a turnable head so that XAS data can be collected at different angles between the electrode and the X-ray beam with an accuracy of 0.5°. The mechanism to adjust the angle of incidence of the beam on the sample allows control over the depth of penetration of the X-ray photons into the electrode. At low angles, it becomes possible to collect surface sensitive data, which is of great importance as the electrochemical processes are believed to take place on the surface of the electrodes. Sr K-edge and Fe K-edge XAS collected at 2° and 45° angles showed that these the oxidation state changes occurring in these elements are different in the near-surface region compared to the bulk of the electrode. Such an ability to distinguish between the surface and bulk properties of the electrode during real reaction environment will help to understand the underlying phenomena better, which will enable electrode design targeted towards the reactions of interest.  more » « less
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Author(s) / Creator(s):
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Date Published:
Journal Name:
RSC Advances
Page Range / eLocation ID:
6456 to 6463
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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