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A modified approximate dynamic programming algorithm for community-level food security following disastersIn the aftermath of an extreme natural hazard, community residents must have access to functioning food retailers to maintain food security. Food security is dependent on supporting critical infrastructure systems, including electricity, potable water, and transportation. An understanding of the response of such interdependent networks and the process of post-disaster recovery is the cornerstone of an efficient emergency management plan. In this study, the interconnectedness among different critical facilities, such as electrical power networks, water networks, highway bridges, and food retailers, is modeled. The study considers various sources of uncertainty and complexity in the recovery process of a community to capture the stochastic behavior of the spatially distributed infrastructure systems. The study utilizes an approximate dynamic programming (ADP) framework to allocate resources to restore infrastructure components efficiently. The proposed ADP scheme enables us to identify near-optimal restoration decisions at the community level. Furthermore, we employ a simulated annealing (SA) algorithm to complement the proposed ADP framework and to identify near-optimal actions accurately. In the sequel, we use the City of Gilroy, California, USA to illustrate the applicability of the proposed methodology following a severe earthquake. The approach can be implemented efficiently to identify practical policy interventions to hasten recovery ofmore »
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Planning for FEWsheds: The Role of Planning in Integrating and Strengthening Food, Energy and Water Systems
As climate change and increased frequency of extreme weather events threaten local and national Food, Energy and Waters (FEW) systems, policymakers and planners are asked to secure the long-term sustainability of resources and address disaster management where failure in one system has cascading effects. The explicit acknowledgment of interdependencies and equity across FEW systems and scales of governance is an approach we term planning for “FEWsheds.” With this research, we build an integrated framework for understanding FEW supply, equity outcomes, available data, and efforts to make FEW systems more resilient through diversification, distributed systems, or relocalization. The literature review demonstrates common flaws in both research design and policy approaches. For example, few studies explicitly address demographic characteristics. Higher-income households use more water, energy and land; are less responsive to price signaling; and often do not bear the negative externalities of infrastructure siting compared to low-income families, who are, in turn, the most vulnerable to supply disruption and contamination. A FEWshed framework helps make apparent the regional interdependencies, inefficiencies and disparities so that policymakers can take corrective action in fostering just, vibrant and sustainable communities for all constituents.
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