Woodruff, David P.
(Ed.)

We give improved algorithms for maintaining edge-orientations of a fully-dynamic graph, such that the maximum out-degree is bounded. On one hand, we show how to orient the edges such that maximum out-degree is proportional to the arboricity $\alpha$ of the graph, in, either, an amortised update time of $O(\log^2 n \log \alpha)$, or a worst-case update time of $O(\log^3 n \log \alpha)$. On the other hand, motivated by applications including dynamic maximal matching, we obtain a different trade-off. Namely, the improved update time of either $O(\log n \log \alpha)$, amortised, or $O(\log ^2 n \log \alpha)$, worst-case, for the problem of maintaining an edge-orientation with at most $O(\alpha + \log n)$ out-edges per vertex. Finally, all of our algorithms naturally limit the recourse to be polylogarithmic in $n$ and $\alpha$. Our algorithms adapt to the current arboricity of the graph, and yield improvements over previous work:
Firstly, we obtain deterministic algorithms for maintaining a $(1+\varepsilon)$ approximation of the maximum subgraph density, $\rho$, of the dynamic graph. Our algorithms have update times of $O(\varepsilon^{-6}\log^3 n \log \rho)$ worst-case, and $O(\varepsilon^{-4}\log^2 n \log \rho)$ amortised, respectively. We may output a subgraph $H$ of the input graph where its density is a $(1+\varepsilon)$ approximation of the maximum subgraph density in time linear in the size of the subgraph. These algorithms have improved update time compared to the $O(\varepsilon^{-6}\log ^4 n)$ algorithm by Sawlani and Wang from STOC 2020.
Secondly, we obtain an $O(\varepsilon^{-6}\log^3 n \log \alpha)$ worst-case update time algorithm for maintaining a $(1~+~\varepsilon)\textnormal{OPT} + 2$ approximation of the optimal out-orientation of a graph with adaptive arboricity $\alpha$, improving the $O(\varepsilon^{-6}\alpha^2 \log^3 n)$ algorithm by Christiansen and Rotenberg from ICALP 2022. This yields the first worst-case polylogarithmic dynamic algorithm for decomposing into $O(\alpha)$ forests.
Thirdly, we obtain arboricity-adaptive fully-dynamic deterministic algorithms for a variety of problems including maximal matching, $\Delta+1$ colouring, and matrix vector multiplication. All update times are worst-case $O(\alpha+\log^2n \log \alpha)$, where $\alpha$ is the current arboricity of the graph. For the maximal matching problem, the state-of-the-art deterministic algorithms by Kopelowitz, Krauthgamer, Porat, and Solomon from ICALP 2014 runs in time $O(\alpha^2 + \log^2 n)$, and by Neiman and Solomon from STOC 2013 runs in time $O(\sqrt{m})$. We give improved running times whenever the arboricity $\alpha \in \omega( \log n\sqrt{\log\log n})$.

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