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- Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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- National Science Foundation
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Differences in olfactory bulb mitral cell spiking with ortho- and retronasal stimulation revealed by data-driven modelsMigliore, Michele (Ed.)The majority of olfaction studies focus on orthonasal stimulation where odors enter via the front nasal cavity, while retronasal olfaction, where odors enter the rear of the nasal cavity during feeding, is understudied. The coding of retronasal odors via coordinated spiking of neurons in the olfactory bulb ( OB ) is largely unknown despite evidence that higher level processing is different than orthonasal. To this end, we use multi-electrode array in vivo recordings of rat OB mitral cells ( MC ) in response to a food odor with both modes of stimulation, and find significant differences in evoked firing rates and spike count covariances (i.e., noise correlations). Differences in spiking activity often have implications for sensory coding, thus we develop a single-compartment biophysical OB model that is able to reproduce key properties of important OB cell types. Prior experiments in olfactory receptor neurons ( ORN ) showed retro stimulation yields slower and spatially smaller ORN inputs than with ortho, yet whether this is consequential for OB activity remains unknown. Indeed with these specifications for ORN inputs, our OB model captures the salient trends in our OB data. We also analyze how first and second order ORN input statistics dynamically transfermore »
Changes in pairwise correlations during running reshape global network state in the main olfactory bulbNeural codes for sensory inputs have been hypothesized to reside in a broader space defined by ongoing patterns of spontaneous activity. To understand the structure of this spontaneous activity in the olfactory system, we performed high-density recordings of neural populations in the main olfactory bulb of awake mice. We observed changes in pairwise correlations of spontaneous activity between mitral and tufted (M/T) cells when animals were running, which resulted in an increase in the entropy of the population. Surprisingly, pairwise maximum entropy models that described the population activity using only assumptions about the firing rates and correlations of neurons were better at predicting the global structure of activity when animals were stationary as compared to when they were running, implying that higher order (3rd, 4th order) interactions governed population activity during locomotion. Taken together, we found that locomotion alters the functional interactions that shape spontaneous population activity at the earliest stages of olfactory processing, one synapse away from the sensory receptors in the nasal epithelium. These data suggest that the coding space available for sensory representations responds adaptively to the animal’s behavioral state. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The organization and structure of spontaneous population activity in the olfactory system places constraintsmore »
Effects of Mechanosensory Input on the Tracking of Pulsatile Odor Stimuli by Moth Antennal Lobe NeuronsAir turbulence ensures that in a natural environment insects tend to encounter odor stimuli in a pulsatile fashion. The frequency and duration of odor pulses varies with distance from the source, and hence successful mid-flight odor tracking requires resolution of spatiotemporal pulse dynamics. This requires both olfactory and mechanosensory input (from wind speed), a form of sensory integration observed within the antennal lobe (AL). In this work, we employ a model of the moth AL to study the effect of mechanosensory input on AL responses to pulsatile stimuli; in particular, we examine the ability of model neurons to: (1) encode the temporal length of a stimulus pulse; (2) resolve the temporal dynamics of a high frequency train of brief stimulus pulses. We find that AL glomeruli receiving olfactory input are adept at encoding the temporal length of a stimulus pulse but less effective at tracking the temporal dynamics of a pulse train, while glomeruli receiving mechanosensory input but little olfactory input can efficiently track the temporal dynamics of high frequency pulse delivery but poorly encode the duration of an individual pulse. Furthermore, we show that stronger intrinsic small-conductance calcium-dependent potassium (SK) currents tend to skew cells toward being better trackersmore »
Decoding the olfactory map through targeted transcriptomics links murine olfactory receptors to glomeruli
Sensory processing in olfactory systems is organized across olfactory bulb glomeruli, wherein axons of peripheral sensory neurons expressing the same olfactory receptor co-terminate to transmit receptor-specific activity to central neurons. Understanding how receptors map to glomeruli is therefore critical to understanding olfaction. High-throughput spatial transcriptomics is a rapidly advancing field, but low-abundance olfactory receptor expression within glomeruli has previously precluded high-throughput mapping of receptors to glomeruli in the mouse. Here we combined sequential sectioning along the anteroposterior, dorsoventral, and mediolateral axes with target capture enrichment sequencing to overcome low-abundance target expression. This strategy allowed us to spatially map 86% of olfactory receptors across the olfactory bulb and uncover a relationship between OR sequence and glomerular position.
Internal state affects local neuron function in an early sensory processing center to shape olfactory behavior in Drosophila larvae
Crawling insects, when starved, tend to have fewer head wavings and travel in straighter tracks in search of food. We used the
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