In this paper, we propose a canonical prune-and-SAT (CP&SAT) attack for breaking state-of-the-art routing-based obfuscation techniques. In the CP&SAT attack, we first encode the key-programmable routing blocks (keyRBs) based on an efficient SAT encoding mechanism suited for detailed routing constraints, and then efficiently re-encode and reduce the CNF corresponded to the keyRB using a bounded variable addition (BVA) algorithm. In the CP&SAT attack, this is done before subjecting the circuit to the SAT attack. We illustrate that this encoding and BVA-based pre-processing significantly reduces the size of the CNF corresponded to the routing-based obfuscated circuit, in the result of which we observe 100% success rate for breaking prior art routing-based obfuscation techniques. Further, we propose a new intercorrelated logic and routing locking technique, or in short InterLock, as a countermeasure to mitigate the CP&SAT attack. In Interlock, in addition to hiding the connectivity, a part of the logic (gates) in the selected timing paths are also implemented in the keyRB(s). We illustrate that when the logic gates are twisted with keyRBs, the BVA could not provide any advantage as a pre-processing step. Our experimental results show that, by using InterLock, with only three 8×8 or only two 16×16 keyRBs (twistedmore »
ChaoLock: Yet Another SAT-hard Logic Locking using Chaos Computing
Logic locking has been widely evaluated as a proactive countermeasure against the hardware security threats within the IC supply chain. However, the introduction of the SAT attack, and many of its derivatives, has raised big concern about this form of countermeasure. In this paper, we explore the possibility of exploiting chaos computing as a new means of logic locking. We introduce the concept of chaotic logic locking, called ChaoLock, in which, by leveraging asymmetric inputs in digital chaotic Boolean gates, we define the concept of programmability (key-configurability) to the sets of underlying initial conditions and system parameters. These initial conditions and system parameters determine the operation (functionality) of each digital chaotic Boolean gate. Also, by proposing dummy inputs in chaotic Boolean gates, we show that during reverse-engineering, the dummy inputs conceal the main functionality of the chaotic Boolean gates, which make the reverse-engineering almost impossible. By performing a security analysis of ChaoLock, we show that with no restriction on conventional CMOS-based ASIC implementation and with no test/debug compromising, none of the state-of-the-art attacks on logic locking, including the SAT attack, could reformulate chaotic Boolean gates while dummy inputs are involved and their parameters are locked. Our analysis and experimental results more »
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- 22nd International Symposium on Quality Electronic Design (ISQED)
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 387 to 394
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
Logic locking has recently been proposed as a solution for protecting gate level semiconductor intellectual property (IP). However, numerous attacks have been mounted on this technique, which either compromise the locking key or restore the original circuit functionality. SAT attacks leverage golden IC information to rule out all incorrect key classes, while bypass and removal attacks exploit the limited output corruptibility and/or structural traces of SAT-resistant locking schemes. In this paper, we propose a new lightweight locking technique: CAS-Lock (cascaded locking) which nullifies both SAT and bypass attacks, while simultaneously maintaining nontrivial output corruptibility. This property of CAS-Lock is in stark contrast to the well-accepted notion that there is an inherent trade-off between output corruptibility and SAT resistance. We theoretically and experimentally validate the SAT resistance of CAS-Lock, and show that it reduces the attack to brute-force, regardless of its construction. Further, we evaluate its resistance to recently proposed approximate SAT attacks (i.e., AppSAT). We also propose a modified version of CAS-Lock (mirrored CAS-Lock or M-CAS) to protect against removal attacks. M-CAS allows a trade-off evaluation between removal attack and SAT attack resiliency, while incurring minimal area overhead. We also show how M-CAS parameters such as the implemented Boolean functionmore »
Protecting intellectual property (IP) has become a serious challenge for chip designers. Most countermeasures are tailored for CMOS integration and tend to incur excessive overheads, resulting from additional circuitry or device-level modifications. On the other hand, power density is a critical concern for sub-50 nm nodes, necessitating alternate design concepts. Although initially tailored for error-tolerant applications, imprecise computing has gained traction as a general-purpose design technique. Emerging devices are currently being explored to implement ultra-low-power circuits for inexact computing applications. In this paper, we quantify the security threats of imprecise computing using emerging devices. More specifically, we leverage the innate polymorphism and tunable stochastic behavior of spin-orbit torque (SOT) devices, particularly, the giant spin-Hall effect (GSHE) switch. We enable IP protection (by means of logic locking and camouflaging) simultaneously for deterministic and probabilistic computing, directly at the GSHE device level. We conduct a comprehensive security analysis using state-of-the-art Boolean satisfiability (SAT) attacks; this study demonstrates the superior resilience of our GSHE primitive when tailored for deterministic computing. We also demonstrate how probabilistic computing can thwart most, if not all, existing SAT attacks. Based on this finding, we propose an attack scheme called probabilistic SAT (PSAT) which can bypass the defensemore »
Logic locking has emerged as a promising solution to protect integrated circuits against piracy and tampering. However, the security provided by existing logic locking techniques is often thwarted by Boolean satisfiability (SAT)-based oracle-guided attacks. Criteria for successful SAT attacks on locked circuits include: (i) the circuit under attack is fully combinational, or (ii) the attacker has scan chain access. To address the threat posed by SAT-based attacks, we adopt the dynamically obfuscated scan chain (DOSC) architecture and illustrate its resiliency against the SAT attacks when inserted into the scan chain of an obfuscated design. We demonstrate, both mathematically and experimentally, that DOSC exponentially increases the resiliency against key extraction by SAT attack and its variants. Our results show that the mathematical estimation of attack complexity correlates to the experimental results with an accuracy of 95% or better. Along with the formal proof, we model DOSC architecture to its equivalent combinational circuit and perform SAT attack to evaluate its resiliency empirically. Our experiments demonstrate that SAT attack on DOSC-inserted benchmark circuits timeout at minimal test time overhead, and while DOSC requires less than 1% area and power overhead.
Full-Lock: Hard Distributions of SAT instances for Obfuscating Circuits using Fully Configurable Logic and Routing BlocksIn this paper, we propose a novel and SAT-resistant logic-locking technique, denoted as Full-Lock, to obfuscate and protect the hardware against threats including IP-piracy and reverse-engineering. The Full- Lock is constructed using a set of small-size fully Programmable Logic and Routing block (PLR) networks. The PLRs are SAT-hard instances with reasonable power, performance and area overheads which are used to obfuscate (1) the routing of a group of selected wires and (2) the logic of the gates leading and proceeding the selected wires. The Full-Lock resists removal attacks and breaks a SAT attack by significantly increasing the complexity of each SAT iteration.