Holey Substrate-Directed Strain Patterning in Bilayer MoS2
Key properties of two-dimensional (2D) layered materials are highly strain tunable, arising from bond modulation and associated reconfiguration of the energy bands around the Fermi level. Approaches to locally controlling and patterning strain have included both active and passive elastic deformation via sustained loading and templating with nanostructures. Here, by float-capturing ultrathin flakes of single-crystal 2H-MoS2 on amorphous holey silicon nitride substrates, we find that highly symmetric, high-fidelity strain patterns are formed. The hexagonally arranged holes and surface topography combine to generate highly conformal flake-substrate coverage creating patterns that match optimal centroidal Voronoi tessellation in 2D Euclidean space. Using TEM imaging and diffraction, as well as AFM topographic mapping, we determine that the substrate-driven 3D geometry of the flakes over the holes consists of symmetric, out-of-plane bowl-like deformation of up to 35 nm, with in-plane, isotropic tensile strains of up to 1.8% (measured with both selected-area diffraction and AFM). Atomistic and image simulations accurately predict spontaneous formation of the strain patterns, with van der Waals forces and substrate topography as the input parameters. These results show that predictable patterns and 3D topography can be spontaneously induced in 2D materials captured on bare, holey substrates. The method also enables electron scattering more »
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NSF-PAR ID:
10302015
Journal Name:
ACS Nano
ISSN:
1936-0851
3. Single-crystalline membranes of functional materials enable the tuning of properties via extreme strain states; however, conventional routes for producing membranes require the use of sacrificial layers and chemical etchants, which can both damage and limit the ability to make membranes ultrathin. Here we demonstrate the epitaxial growth of cubic and hexagonal Heusler compounds on graphene-terminated Al$_2$O$_3$ substrates. The weak Van der Waals interactions of graphene enable the mechanical exfoliation of LaPtSb and GdPtSb films to yield free-standing membranes. Despite the presence of the graphene interlayer, the Heusler films have epitaxial registry to the underlying sapphire, as revealed by x-ray diffraction, reflection high energy electron diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Some films show a uniform in-plane rotation of several degrees with respect to the substrate, which we attribute to a combination of lattice mismatch and weakened Heusler film / sapphire substrate interactions through graphene. The residual resistivity of semi free-standing films on graphene-terminated substrates is similar to the residual resistivity of films grown by direct epitaxy. Our graphene-mediated approach provides a promising platform for tuning the magnetic, topological, and multiferroic properties of Heuslers in a clean, single-crystalline membrane system.