skip to main content

Title: Edge-to-cloud Virtualized Cyberinfrastructure for Near Real-time Water Quality Forecasting in Lakes and Reservoirs
The management of drinking water quality is critical to public health and can benefit from techniques and technologies that support near real-time forecasting of lake and reservoir conditions. The cyberinfrastructure (CI) needed to support forecasting has to overcome multiple challenges, which include: 1) deploying sensors at the reservoir requires the CI to extend to the network’s edge and accommodate devices with constrained network and power; 2) different lakes need different sensor modalities, deployments, and calibrations; hence, the CI needs to be flexible and customizable to accommodate various deployments; and 3) the CI requires to be accessible and usable to various stakeholders (water managers, reservoir operators, and researchers) without barriers to entry. This paper describes the CI underlying FLARE (Forecasting Lake And Reservoir Ecosystems), a novel system co-designed in an interdisciplinary manner between CI and domain scientists to address the above challenges. FLARE integrates R packages that implement the core numerical forecasting (including lake process modeling and data assimilation) with containers, overlay virtual networks, object storage, versioned storage, and event-driven Function-as-a-Service (FaaS) serverless execution. It is a flexible forecasting system that can be deployed in different modalities, including the Manual Mode suitable for end-users’ personal computers and the Workflow Mode ideal more » for cloud deployment. The paper reports on experimental data and lessons learned from the operational deployment of FLARE in a drinking water supply (Falling Creek Reservoir in Vinton, Virginia, USA). Experiments with a FLARE deployment quantify its edge-to-cloud virtual network performance and serverless execution in OpenWhisk deployments on both XSEDE-Jetstream and the IBM Cloud Functions FaaS system. « less
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1933016 1737424 2004323 1933102 2004441
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10304372
Journal Name:
2021 IEEE 17th International Conference on eScience (eScience)
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Serverless computing is an emerging event-driven programming model that accelerates the development and deployment of scalable web services on cloud computing systems. Though widely integrated with the public cloud, serverless computing use is nascent for edge-based, IoT deployments. In this work, we design and develop STOIC (Serverless TeleOperable HybrId Cloud), an IoT application deployment and offloading system that extends the serverless model in three ways. First, STOIC adopts a dynamic feedback control mechanism to precisely predict latency and dispatch workloads uniformly across edge and cloud systems using a distributed serverless framework. Second, STOIC leverages hardware acceleration (e.g. GPU resources) for serverless function execution when available from the underlying cloud system. Third, STOIC can be configured in multiple ways to overcome deployment variability associated with public cloud use. Finally, we empirically evaluate STOIC using real-world machine learning applications and multi-tier IoT deployments (edge and cloud). We show that STOIC can be used for training image processing workloads (for object recognition) – once thought too resource intensive for edge deployments. We find that STOIC reduces overall execution time (response latency) and achieves placement accuracy that ranges from 92% to 97%.
  2. Serverless computing is a promising new event- driven programming model that was designed by cloud vendors to expedite the development and deployment of scalable web services on cloud computing systems. Using the model, developers write applications that consist of simple, independent, stateless functions that the cloud invokes on-demand (i.e. elastically), in response to system-wide events (data arrival, messages, web requests, etc.). In this work, we present STOIC (Serverless TeleOperable HybrId Cloud), an application scheduling and deployment system that extends the serverless model in two ways. First, it uses the model in a distributed setting and schedules application functions across multiple cloud systems. Second, STOIC sup- ports serverless function execution using hardware acceleration (e.g. GPU resources) when available from the underlying cloud system. We overview the design and implementation of STOIC and empirically evaluate it using real-world machine learning applications and multi-tier (e.g. edge-cloud) deployments. We find that STOIC’s combined use of edge and cloud resources is able to outperform using either cloud in isolation for the applications and datasets that we consider.
  3. Internet of Things (IoT) devices are becoming increasingly prevalent in our environment, yet the process of programming these devices and processing the data they produce remains difficult. Typically, data is processed on device, involving arduous work in low level languages, or data is moved to the cloud, where abundant resources are available for Functions as a Service (FaaS) or other handlers. FaaS is an emerging category of flexible computing services, where developers deploy self-contained functions to be run in portable and secure containerized environments; however, at the moment, these functions are limited to running in the cloud or in some cases at the "edge" of the network using resource rich, Linux-based systems. In this work, we investigate NanoLambda, a portable platform that brings FaaS, high-level language programming, and familiar cloud service APIs to non-Linux and microcontroller-based IoT devices. To enable this, NanoLambda couples a new, minimal Python runtime system that we have designed for the least capable end of the IoT device spectrum, with API compatibility for AWS Lambda and S3. NanoLambda transfers functions between IoT devices (sensors, edge, cloud), providing power and latency savings while retaining the programmer productivity benefits of high-level languages and FaaS. A key feature ofmore »NanoLambda is a scheduler that intelligently places function executions across multi-scale IoT deployments according to resource availability and power constraints. We evaluate a range of applications that use NanoLambda to run on devices as small as the ESP8266 with 64KB of ram and 512KB flash storage.« less
  4. Serverless computing is a rapidly growing cloud application model, popularized by Amazon's Lambda platform. Serverless cloud services provide fine-grained provisioning of resources, which scale automatically with user demand. Function-as-a-Service (FaaS) applications follow this serverless model, with the developer providing their application as a set of functions which are executed in response to a user- or system-generated event. Functions are designed to be short-lived and execute inside containers or virtual machines, introducing a range of system-level overheads. This paper studies the architectural implications of this emerging paradigm. Using the commercial-grade Apache OpenWhisk FaaS platform on real servers, this work investigates and identifies the architectural implications of FaaS serverless computing. The workloads, along with the way that FaaS inherently interleaves short functions from many tenants frustrates many of the locality-preserving architectural structures common in modern processors. In particular, we find that: FaaS containerization brings up to 20x slowdown compared to native execution, cold-start can be over 10x a short function's execution time, branch mispredictions per kilo-instruction are 20x higher for short functions, memory bandwidth increases by 6x due to the invocation pattern, and IPC decreases by as much as 35% due to inter-function interference. We open-source FaaSProfiler, the FaaS testing and profilingmore »platform that we developed for this work.« less
  5. Serverless computing, or Function-as-a-Service (FaaS), enables a new way of building and scaling applications by allowing users to deploy fine-grained functions while providing fully-managed resource provisioning and auto-scaling. Custom FaaS container support is gaining traction as it enables better control over OSes, versioning, and tooling for modernizing FaaS applications. However, providing rapid container provisioning introduces non-trivial challenges for FaaS providers, since container provisioning is costly, and real-world FaaS workloads exhibit highly dynamic patterns. In this paper, we design FaaSNet, a highly-scalable middleware system for accelerating FaaS container provisioning. FaaSNet is driven by the workload and infrastructure requirements of the FaaS platform at one of the world's largest cloud providers, Alibaba Cloud Function Compute. FaaSNet enables scalable container provisioning via a lightweight, adaptive function tree (FT) structure. FaaSNet uses an I/O efficient, on-demand fetching mechanism to further reduce provisioning costs at scale. We implement and integrate FaaSNet in Alibaba Cloud Function Compute. Evaluation results show that FaaSNet: (1) finishes provisioning 2,500 function containers on 1,000 virtual machines in 8.3 seconds, (2) scales 13.4× and 16.3× faster than Alibaba Cloud's current FaaS platform and a state-of-the-art P2P container registry (Kraken), respectively, and (3) sustains a bursty workload using 75.2% less time thanmore »an optimized baseline.« less