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Title: The spring transition of the North Pacific jet and its relation to deep stratosphere-to-troposphere mass transport over western North America
Abstract. Stratosphere-to-troposphere mass transport to the planetaryboundary layer (STT-PBL) peaks over the western United States during borealspring, when deep stratospheric intrusions are most frequent. Thetropopause-level jet structure modulates the frequency and character ofintrusions, although the precise relationship between STT-PBL and jetvariability has not been extensively investigated. In this study, wedemonstrate how the North Pacific jet transition from winter to summer leadsto the observed peak in STT-PBL. We show that the transition enhancesSTT-PBL through an increase in storm track activity which produceshighly amplified Rossby waves and more frequent deep stratosphericintrusions over western North America. This dynamic transition coincideswith the gradually deepening PBL, further facilitating STT-PBL in spring. Wefind that La Niña conditions in late winter are associated with anearlier jet transition and enhanced STT-PBL due to deeper and more frequenttropopause folds. An opposite response is found during El Niñoconditions. El Niño–SouthernOscillation (ENSO) conditions also influence STT-PBL in late spring or earlysummer, during which time La Niña conditions are associated with largerand more frequent tropopause folds than both El Niño and ENSO-neutralconditions. These results suggest that knowledge of ENSO state and the North Pacific jet structure in late winter could be leveraged for predicting thestrength of STT-PBL in the following months.
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Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
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National Science Foundation
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