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- International journal of engineering research and applications
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- National Science Foundation
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null (Ed.)Abstract The passive conserved Swift–Hohenberg equation (or phase-field-crystal [PFC] model) describes gradient dynamics of a single-order parameter field related to density. It provides a simple microscopic description of the thermodynamic transition between liquid and crystalline states. In addition to spatially extended periodic structures, the model describes a large variety of steady spatially localized structures. In appropriate bifurcation diagrams the corresponding solution branches exhibit characteristic slanted homoclinic snaking. In an active PFC model, encoding for instance the active motion of self-propelled colloidal particles, the gradient dynamics structure is broken by a coupling between density and an additional polarization field. Then, resting and traveling localized states are found with transitions characterized by parity-breaking drift bifurcations. Here, we briefly review the snaking behavior of localized states in passive and active PFC models before discussing the bifurcation behavior of localized states in systems of (i) two coupled passive PFC models with common gradient dynamics, (ii) two coupled passive PFC models where the coupling breaks the gradient dynamics structure and (iii) a passive PFC model coupled to an active PFC model.more » « less
Abstract In this article, the recently discovered phenomenon of delayed Hopf bifurcations (DHB) in reaction–diffusion partial differential equations (PDEs) is analysed in the cubic Complex Ginzburg–Landau equation, as an equation in its own right, with a slowly varying parameter. We begin by using the classical asymptotic methods of stationary phase and steepest descents on the linearized PDE to show that solutions, which have approached the attracting quasi-steady state (QSS) before the Hopf bifurcation remain near that state for long times after the instantaneous Hopf bifurcation and the QSS has become repelling. In the complex time plane, the phase function of the linearized PDE has a saddle point, and the Stokes and anti-Stokes lines are central to the asymptotics. The non-linear terms are treated by applying an iterative method to the mild form of the PDE given by perturbations about the linear particular solution. This tracks the closeness of solutions near the attracting and repelling QSS in the full, non-linear PDE. Next, we show that beyond a key Stokes line through the saddle there is a curve in the space-time plane along which the particular solution of the linear PDE ceases to be exponentially small, causing the solution of the non-linear PDE to diverge from the repelling QSS and exhibit large-amplitude oscillations. This curve is called the space–time buffer curve. The homogeneous solution also stops being exponentially small in a spatially dependent manner, as determined also by the initial data and time. Hence, a competition arises between these two solutions, as to which one ceases to be exponentially small first, and this competition governs spatial dependence of the DHB. We find four different cases of DHB, depending on the outcomes of the competition, and we quantify to leading order how these depend on the main system parameters, including the Hopf frequency, initial time, initial data, source terms, and diffusivity. Examples are presented for each case, with source terms that are a uni-modal function, a smooth step function, a spatially periodic function and an algebraically growing function. Also, rich spatio-temporal dynamics are observed in the post-DHB oscillations. Finally, it is shown that large-amplitude source terms can be designed so that solutions spend substantially longer times near the repelling QSS, and hence, region-specific control over the delayed onset of oscillations can be achieved.more » « less
Systems of coupled nonlinear oscillators often exhibit states of partial synchrony in which some of the oscillators oscillate coherently while the rest remain incoherent. If such a state emerges spontaneously, in other words, if it cannot be associated with any heterogeneity in the system, it is generally referred to as a chimera state. In planar oscillator arrays, these chimera states can take the form of rotating spiral waves surrounding an incoherent core, resembling those observed in oscillatory or excitable media, and may display complex dynamical behavior. To understand this behavior we study stationary and moving chimera states in planar phase oscillator arrays using a combination of direct numerical simulations and numerical continuation of solutions of the corresponding continuum limit, focusing on the existence and properties of traveling spiral wave chimeras as a function of the system parameters. The oscillators are coupled nonlocally and their frequencies are drawn from a Lorentzian distribution. Two cases are discussed in detail, that of a top-hat coupling function and a two-parameter truncated Fourier approximation to this function in Cartesian coordinates. The latter allows semi-analytical progress, including determination of stability properties, leading to a classification of possible behaviors of both static and moving chimera states. The transition from stationary to moving chimeras is shown to be accompanied by the appearance of complex filamentary structures within the incoherent spiral wave core representing secondary coherence regions associated with temporal resonances. As the parameters are varied the number of such filaments may grow, a process reflected in a series of folds in the corresponding bifurcation diagram showing the drift speed
sas a function of the phase-lag parameter α.
The chief objective of this paper is to explore energy transfer mechanism between the sub-systems that are coupled by a nonlinear elastic path. In the proposed model (via a minimal order, two degree of freedom system), both sub-systems are defined as damped harmonic oscillators with linear springs and dampers. The first sub-system is attached to the ground on one side but connected to the second sub-system on the other side. In addition, linear elastic and dissipative characteristics of both oscillators are assumed to be identical, and a harmonic force excitation is applied only on the mass element of second oscillator. The nonlinear spring (placed in between the two sub-systems) is assumed to exhibit cubic, hardening type nonlinearity. First, the governing equations of the two degree of freedom system with a nonlinear elastic path are obtained. Second, the nonlinear differential equations are solved with a semi-analytical (multi-term harmonic balance) method, and nonlinear frequency responses of the system are calculated for different path coupling cases. As such, the nonlinear path stiffness is gradually increased so that the stiffness ratio of nonlinear element to the linear element is 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 while the absolute value of linear spring stiffness is kept intact. In all solutions, it is observed that the frequency response curves at the vicinity of resonant frequencies bend towards higher frequencies as expected due to the hardening effect. However, at moderate or higher levels of path coupling (say 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0), additional branches emerge in the frequency response curves but only at the first resonant frequency. This is due to higher displacement amplitudes at the first resonant frequency as compared to the second one. Even though the oscillators move in-phase around the first natural frequency, high amplitudes increase the contribution of the stored potential energy in the nonlinear spring to the total mechanical energy. The out-of-phase motion around the second natural frequency cannot significantly contribute due to very low motion amplitudes. Finally, the governing equations are numerically solved for the same levels of nonlinearity, and the motion responses of both sub-systems are calculated. Both in-phase and out-of-phase motion responses are successfully shown in numerical solutions, and phase portraits of the system are generated in order to illustrate its nonlinear dynamics. In conclusion, a better understanding of the effect of nonlinear elastic path on two damped harmonic oscillators is gained.more » « less
Chimera states, or coherence–incoherence patterns in systems of symmetrically coupled identical oscillators, have been the subject of intensive study for the last two decades. In particular it is now known that the continuum limit of phase-coupled oscillators allows an elegant mathematical description of these states based on a nonlinear integro-differential equation known as the Ott–Antonsen equation. However, a systematic study of this equation usually requires a substantial computational effort. In this paper, we consider a special class of nonlocally coupled phase oscillator models where the above analytical approach simplifies significantly, leading to a semi-analytical description of both chimera states and of their linear stability properties. We apply this approach to phase oscillators on a one-dimensional lattice, on a two-dimensional square lattice and on a three-dimensional cubic lattice, all three with periodic boundary conditions. For each of these systems we identify multiple symmetric coherence–incoherence patterns and compute their linear stability properties. In addition, we describe how chimera states in higher-dimensional models are inherited from lower-dimensional models and explain how they can be grouped according to their symmetry properties and global order parameter.