skip to main content

Title: Delayed Hopf Bifurcation and Space–Time Buffer Curves in the Complex Ginzburg–Landau Equation
Abstract In this article, the recently discovered phenomenon of delayed Hopf bifurcations (DHB) in reaction–diffusion partial differential equations (PDEs) is analysed in the cubic Complex Ginzburg–Landau equation, as an equation in its own right, with a slowly varying parameter. We begin by using the classical asymptotic methods of stationary phase and steepest descents on the linearized PDE to show that solutions, which have approached the attracting quasi-steady state (QSS) before the Hopf bifurcation remain near that state for long times after the instantaneous Hopf bifurcation and the QSS has become repelling. In the complex time plane, the phase function of the linearized PDE has a saddle point, and the Stokes and anti-Stokes lines are central to the asymptotics. The non-linear terms are treated by applying an iterative method to the mild form of the PDE given by perturbations about the linear particular solution. This tracks the closeness of solutions near the attracting and repelling QSS in the full, non-linear PDE. Next, we show that beyond a key Stokes line through the saddle there is a curve in the space-time plane along which the particular solution of the linear PDE ceases to be exponentially small, causing the solution of the non-linear more » PDE to diverge from the repelling QSS and exhibit large-amplitude oscillations. This curve is called the space–time buffer curve. The homogeneous solution also stops being exponentially small in a spatially dependent manner, as determined also by the initial data and time. Hence, a competition arises between these two solutions, as to which one ceases to be exponentially small first, and this competition governs spatial dependence of the DHB. We find four different cases of DHB, depending on the outcomes of the competition, and we quantify to leading order how these depend on the main system parameters, including the Hopf frequency, initial time, initial data, source terms, and diffusivity. Examples are presented for each case, with source terms that are a uni-modal function, a smooth step function, a spatially periodic function and an algebraically growing function. Also, rich spatio-temporal dynamics are observed in the post-DHB oscillations. Finally, it is shown that large-amplitude source terms can be designed so that solutions spend substantially longer times near the repelling QSS, and hence, region-specific control over the delayed onset of oscillations can be achieved. « less
; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
IMA Journal of Applied Mathematics
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
131 to 186
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Fear of predation may assert privilege to prey species by restricting their exposure to potential predators, meanwhile it can also impose costs by constraining the exploration of optimal resources. A predator–prey model with the effect of fear, refuge, and hunting cooperation has been investigated in this paper. The system’s equilibria are obtained and their local stability behavior is discussed. The existence of Hopf-bifurcation is analytically shown by taking refuge as a bifurcation parameter. There are many ecological factors which are not instantaneous processes, and so, to make the system more realistic, we incorporate three discrete time delays: in the effect of fear, refuge and hunting cooperation, and analyze the delayed system for stability and bifurcation. Moreover, for environmental fluctuations, we further modify the delayed system by incorporating seasonality in the fear, refuge and cooperation. We have analyzed the seasonally forced delayed system for the existence of a positive periodic solution. In the support of analytical results, some numerical simulations are carried out. Sensitivity analysis is used to identify parameters having crucial impacts on the ecological balance of predator–prey interactions. We find that the rate of predation, fear, and hunting cooperation destabilizes the system, whereas prey refuge stabilizes the system. Timemore »delay in the cooperation behavior generates irregular oscillations whereas delay in refuge stabilizes an otherwise unstable system. Seasonal variations in the level of fear and refuge generate higher periodic solutions and bursting patterns, respectively, which can be replaced by simple 1-periodic solution if the cooperation and fear are also allowed to vary with time in the former and latter situations. Higher periodicity and bursting patterns are also observed due to synergistic effects of delay and seasonality. Our results indicate that the combined effects of fear, refuge and hunting cooperation play a major role in maintaining a healthy ecological environment.« less
  2. We consider the time evolution in two spatial dimensions of a double vorticity layer consisting of two contiguous, infinite material fluid strips, each with uniform but generally differing vorticity, embedded in an otherwise infinite, irrotational, inviscid incompressible fluid. The potential application is to the wake dynamics formed by two boundary layers separating from a splitter plate. A thin-layer approximation is constructed where each layer thickness, measured normal to the common centre curve, is small in comparison with the local radius of curvature of the centre curve. The three-curve equations of contour dynamics that fully describe the double-layer dynamics are expanded in the small thickness parameter. At leading order, closed nonlinear initial-value evolution equations are obtained that describe the motion of the centre curve together with the time and spatial variation of each layer thickness. In the special case where the layer vorticities are equal, these equations reduce to the single-layer equation of Moore ( Stud. Appl. Math. , vol. 58, 1978, pp. 119–140). Analysis of the linear stability of the first-order equations to small-amplitude perturbations shows Kelvin–Helmholtz instability when the far-field fluid velocities on either side of the double layer are unequal. Equal velocities define a circulation-free double vorticity layer,more »for which solution of the initial-value problem using the Laplace transform reveals a double pole in transform space leading to linear algebraic growth in general, but there is a class of interesting initial conditions with no linear growth. This is shown to agree with the long-wavelength limit of the full linearized, three-curve stability equations.« less
  3. Recent theoretical and computational progress has led to unprecedented understanding of symmetry-breaking instabilities in 2D dynamic fracture. At the heart of this progress resides the identification of two intrinsic, near crack tip length scales — a nonlinear elastic length scale ℓ and a dissipation length scale ξ — that do not exist in Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM), the classical theory of cracks. In particular, it has been shown that at a propagation velocity v of about 90% of the shear wave-speed, cracks in 2D brittle materials undergo an oscillatory instability whose wavelength varies linearly with ℓ, and at larger loading levels (corresponding to yet higher propagation velocities), a tip-splitting instability emerges, both in agreements with experiments. In this paper, using phase-field models of brittle fracture, we demonstrate the following properties of the oscillatory instability: (i) It exists also in the absence of near-tip elastic nonlinearity, i.e. in the limit ℓ→0, with a wavelength determined by the dissipation length scale ξ. This result shows that the instability crucially depends on the existence of an intrinsic length scale associated with the breakdown of linear elasticity near crack tips, independently of whether the latter is related to nonlinear elasticity or to dissipation. (ii)more »It is a supercritical Hopf bifurcation, featuring a vanishing oscillations amplitude at onset. (iii) It is largely independent of the phenomenological forms of the degradation functions assumed in the phase-field framework to describe the cohesive zone, and of the velocity-dependence of the fracture energy Γ(v) that is controlled by the dissipation time scale in the Ginzburg-Landau-type evolution equation for the phase-field. These results substantiate the universal nature of the oscillatory instability in 2D. In addition, we provide evidence indicating that the tip-splitting instability is controlled by the limiting rate of elastic energy transport inside the crack tip region. The latter is sensitive to the wave-speed inside the dissipation zone, which can be systematically varied within the phase-field approach. Finally, we describe in detail the numerical implementation scheme of the employed phase-field fracture approach, allowing its application in a broad range of materials failure problems.« less
  4. In this paper, an insect-parasite-host model with logistic growth of triatomine bugs is formulated to study the transmission between hosts and vectors of the Chagas disease by using dynamical system approach. We derive the basic reproduction numbers for triatomine bugs and Trypanosoma rangeli as two thresholds. The local and global stability of the vector-free equilibrium, parasite-free equilibrium and parasite-positive equilibrium is investigated through the derived two thresholds. Forward bifurcation, saddle-node bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation are proved analytically and illustrated numerically. We show that the model can lose the stability of the vector-free equilibrium and exhibit a supercritical Hopf bifurcation, indicating the occurrence of a stable limit cycle. We also find it unlikely to have backward bifurcation and Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation of the parasite-positive equilibrium. However, the sustained oscillations of infected vector population suggest that Trypanosoma rangeli will persist in all the populations, posing a significant challenge for the prevention and control of Chagas disease.

  5. A class of two-fast, one-slow multiple timescale dynamical systems is considered that contains the system of ordinary differential equations obtained from seeking travelling-wave solutions to the FitzHugh-Nagumo equations in one space dimension. The question addressed is the mechanism by which a small-amplitude periodic orbit, created in a Hopf bifurcation, undergoes rapid amplitude growth in a small parameter interval, akin to a canard explosion. The presence of a saddle-focus structure around the slow manifold implies that a single periodic orbit undergoes a sequence of folds as the amplitude grows. An analysis is performed under some general hypotheses using a combination ideas from the theory of canard explosion and Shilnikov analysis. An asymptotic formula is obtained for the dependence of the parameter location of the folds on the singular parameter and parameters that control the saddle focus eigenvalues. The analysis is shown to agree with numerical results both for a synthetic normal-form example and the FitzHugh-Nagumo system.