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- 2D Materials
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- National Science Foundation
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Asymmetric photoelectric effect: Auger-assisted hot hole photocurrents in transition metal dichalcogenidesAbstract Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) semiconductor heterostructures are actively explored as a new platform for quantum optoelectronic systems. Most state of the art devices make use of insulating hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) that acts as a wide-bandgap dielectric encapsulating layer that also provides an atomically smooth and clean interface that is paramount for proper device operation. We report the observation of large, through-hBN photocurrents that are generated upon optical excitation of hBN encapsulated MoSe 2 and WSe 2 monolayer devices. We attribute these effects to Auger recombination in the TMDs, in combination with an asymmetric band offset between the TMD and the hBN. We present experimental investigation of these effects and compare our observations with detailed, ab-initio modeling. Our observations have important implications for the design of optoelectronic devices based on encapsulated TMD devices. In systems where precise charge-state control is desired, the out-of-plane current path presents both a challenge and an opportunity for optical doping control. Since the current directly depends on Auger recombination, it can act as a local, direct probe of both the efficiency of the Auger process as well as its dependence on the local density of states in integrated devices.
Interlayer excitons (IXs) in MoSe2–WSe2heterobilayers have generated interest as highly tunable light emitters in transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) heterostructures. Previous reports of spectrally narrow (<1 meV) photoluminescence (PL) emission lines at low temperature have been attributed to IXs localized by the moiré potential between the TMD layers. We show that spectrally narrow IX PL lines are present even when the moiré potential is suppressed by inserting a bilayer hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) spacer between the TMD layers. We compare the doping, electric field, magnetic field, and temperature dependence of IXs in a directly contacted MoSe2–WSe2region to those in a region separated by bilayer hBN. The doping, electric field, and temperature dependence of the narrow IX lines are similar for both regions, but their excitonic g-factors have opposite signs, indicating that the origin of narrow IX PL is not the moiré potential.
Moiré coupling in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) superlattices introduces flat minibands that enable strong electronic correlation and fascinating correlated states, and it also modifies the strong Coulomb-interaction-driven excitons and gives rise to moiré excitons. Here, we introduce the layer degree of freedom to the WSe2/WS2moiré superlattice by changing WSe2from monolayer to bilayer and trilayer. We observe systematic changes of optical spectra of the moiré excitons, which directly confirm the highly interfacial nature of moiré coupling at the WSe2/WS2interface. In addition, the energy resonances of moiré excitons are strongly modified, with their separation significantly increased in multilayer WSe2/monolayer WS2moiré superlattice. The additional WSe2layers also modulate the strong electronic correlation strength, evidenced by the reduced Mott transition temperature with added WSe2layer(s). The layer dependence of both moiré excitons and correlated electronic states can be well described by our theoretical model. Our study presents a new method to tune the strong electronic correlation and moiré exciton bands in the TMDCs moiré superlattices, ushering in an exciting platform to engineer quantum phenomena stemming from strong correlation and Coulomb interaction.
Ultrafast dynamics of exciton formation and decay in two-dimensional tungsten disulfide (2D-WS 2 ) monolayersExcitons in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers (2D-TMDs) are of essential importance due to their key involvement in 2D-TMD-based applications. For instance, exciton dissociation and exciton radiative recombination are indispensible processes in photovoltaic and light-emitting devices, respectively. These two processes depend drastically on the photogeneration efficiency and lifetime of excitons. Here, we incorporate femtosecond pump–probe spectroscopy to investigate the ultrafast dynamics of exciton formation and decay in a single crystal of monolayer 2D tungsten disulfide (WS 2 ). Investigation of the formation dynamics of the lowest exciton (X A ) indicated that the formation time linearly increases from ∼150 fs upon resonant excitation, to ∼500 fs following excitation that is ∼1.1 eV above the band-gap. This dependence is attributed to the time it takes highly excited electrons in the conduction band (CB) to relax to the CB minimum (CBM) and contribute to the formation of X A . This is confirmed by infrared measurements of electron intraband relaxation dynamics. Furthermore, pump–probe experiments suggested that the X A ground state depletion recovery dynamics depend on the excitation energy as well. The average recovery time increased from ∼10 ps in the case of resonant excitation to ∼50 ps following excitation well abovemore »
Two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) layers are suitable for visible-to-near infrared photodetection owing to their tunable optical bandgaps. Also, their superior mechanical deformability enabled by an extremely small thickness and van der Waals (vdW) assembly allows them to be structured into unconventional physical forms, unattainable with any other materials. Herein, we demonstrate a new type of 2D MoS 2 layer-based rollable photodetector that can be mechanically reconfigured while maintaining excellent geometry-invariant photo-responsiveness. Large-area (>a few cm 2 ) 2D MoS 2 layers grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) were integrated on transparent and flexible substrates composed of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TOCNs) by a direct solution casting method. These composite materials in three-dimensionally rollable forms exhibited a large set of intriguing photo-responsiveness, well preserving intrinsic opto-electrical characteristics of the integrated 2D MoS 2 layers; i.e. , light intensity-dependent photocurrents insensitive to illumination angles as well as highly tunable photocurrents varying with the rolling number of 2D MoS 2 layers, which were impossible to achieve with conventional photodetectors. This study provides a new design principle for converting 2D materials to three-dimensional (3D) objects of tailored functionalities and structures, significantly broadening their potential and versatility in futuristic devices.