Current, near-term quantum devices have shown great progress in the last several years culminating recently with a demonstration of quantum supremacy. In the medium-term, however, quantum machines will need to transition to greater reliability through error correction, likely through promising techniques like surface codes which are well suited for near-term devices with limited qubit connectivity. We discover quantum memory, particularly resonant cavities with transmon qubits arranged in a 2.5D architecture, can efficiently implement surface codes with substantial hardware savings and performance/fidelity gains. Specifically, we virtualize logical qubits by storing them in layers of qubit memories connected to each transmon. Surprisingly, distributing each logical qubit across many memories has a minimal impact on fault tolerance and results in substantially more efficient operations. Our design permits fast transversal application of CNOT operations between logical qubits sharing the same physical address (same set of cavities) which are 6x faster than standard lattice surgery CNOTs. We develop a novel embedding which saves approximately 10x in transmons with another 2x savings from an additional optimization for compactness. Although qubit virtualization pays a 10x penalty in serialization, advantages in the transversal CNOT and in area efficiency result in fault-tolerance and performance comparable to conventional 2D transmon-onlymore »
Orchestrated trios: compiling for efficient communication in Quantum programs with 3-Qubit gates
Current quantum computers are especially error prone and require high levels of optimization to reduce operation counts and maximize the probability the compiled program will succeed. These computers only support operations decomposed into one- and two-qubit gates and only two-qubit gates between physically connected pairs of qubits. Typical compilers first decompose operations, then route data to connected qubits. We propose a new compiler structure, Orchestrated Trios, that first decomposes to the three-qubit Toffoli, routes the inputs of the higher-level Toffoli operations to groups of nearby qubits, then finishes decomposition to hardware-supported gates. This significantly reduces communication overhead by giving the routing pass access to the higher-level structure of the circuit instead of discarding it. A second benefit is the ability to now select an architecture-tuned Toffoli decomposition such as the 8-CNOT Toffoli for the specific hardware qubits now known after the routing pass. We perform real experiments on IBM Johannesburg showing an average 35% decrease in two-qubit gate count and 23% increase in success rate of a single Toffoli over Qiskit. We additionally compile many near-term benchmark algorithms showing an average 344% increase in (or 4.44x) simulated success rate on the Johannesburg architecture and compare with other architecture types.
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Proceedings of the 26th ACM International Conference on Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems(ASPLOS 2021).
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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