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Title: Virtualized Logical Qubits: A 2.5D Architecture for Error-Corrected Quantum Computing
Current, near-term quantum devices have shown great progress in the last several years culminating recently with a demonstration of quantum supremacy. In the medium-term, however, quantum machines will need to transition to greater reliability through error correction, likely through promising techniques like surface codes which are well suited for near-term devices with limited qubit connectivity. We discover quantum memory, particularly resonant cavities with transmon qubits arranged in a 2.5D architecture, can efficiently implement surface codes with substantial hardware savings and performance/fidelity gains. Specifically, we virtualize logical qubits by storing them in layers of qubit memories connected to each transmon. Surprisingly, distributing each logical qubit across many memories has a minimal impact on fault tolerance and results in substantially more efficient operations. Our design permits fast transversal application of CNOT operations between logical qubits sharing the same physical address (same set of cavities) which are 6x faster than standard lattice surgery CNOTs. We develop a novel embedding which saves approximately 10x in transmons with another 2x savings from an additional optimization for compactness. Although qubit virtualization pays a 10x penalty in serialization, advantages in the transversal CNOT and in area efficiency result in fault-tolerance and performance comparable to conventional 2D transmon-only more » architectures. Our simulations show our system can achieve fault tolerance comparable to conventional two-dimensional grids while saving substantial hardware. Furthermore, our architecture can produce magic states at 1.22x the baseline rate given a fixed number of transmon qubits. This is a critical benchmark for future fault-tolerant quantum computers as magic states are essential and machines will spend the majority of their resources continuously producing them. This architecture substantially reduces the hardware requirements for fault-tolerant quantum computing and puts within reach a proof-of-concept experimental demonstration of around 10 logical qubits, requiring only 11 transmons and 9 attached cavities in total. « less
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Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
53rd Annual IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Microarchitecture (MICRO)
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
173 to 185
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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