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Title: Deep Learning-Based Approaches for Decoding Motor Intent From Peripheral Nerve Signals
Previous literature shows that deep learning is an effective tool to decode the motor intent from neural signals obtained from different parts of the nervous system. However, deep neural networks are often computationally complex and not feasible to work in real-time. Here we investigate different approaches' advantages and disadvantages to enhance the deep learning-based motor decoding paradigm's efficiency and inform its future implementation in real-time. Our data are recorded from the amputee's residual peripheral nerves. While the primary analysis is offline, the nerve data is cut using a sliding window to create a “pseudo-online” dataset that resembles the conditions in a real-time paradigm. First, a comprehensive collection of feature extraction techniques is applied to reduce the input data dimensionality, which later helps substantially lower the motor decoder's complexity, making it feasible for translation to a real-time paradigm. Next, we investigate two different strategies for deploying deep learning models: a one-step (1S) approach when big input data are available and a two-step (2S) when input data are limited. This research predicts five individual finger movements and four combinations of the fingers. The 1S approach using a recurrent neural network (RNN) to concurrently predict all fingers' trajectories generally gives better prediction results more » than all the machine learning algorithms that do the same task. This result reaffirms that deep learning is more advantageous than classic machine learning methods for handling a large dataset. However, when training on a smaller input data set in the 2S approach, which includes a classification stage to identify active fingers before predicting their trajectories, machine learning techniques offer a simpler implementation while ensuring comparably good decoding outcomes to the deep learning ones. In the classification step, either machine learning or deep learning models achieve the accuracy and F1 score of 0.99. Thanks to the classification step, in the regression step, both types of models result in a comparable mean squared error (MSE) and variance accounted for (VAF) scores as those of the 1S approach. Our study outlines the trade-offs to inform the future implementation of real-time, low-latency, and high accuracy deep learning-based motor decoder for clinical applications. « less
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1845709
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10315041
Journal Name:
Frontiers in Neuroscience
Volume:
15
ISSN:
1662-453X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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We used a variety of techniques such as the file locking mechanism, multithreading, circular buffers, real-time event decoding, and signal-decision plotting to realize the system. A video demonstrating the system is available at: https://www.isip.piconepress.com/projects/nsf_pfi_tt/resources/videos/realtime_eeg_analysis/v2.5.1/video_2.5.1.mp4. The final conference submission will include a more detailed analysis of the online performance of each module. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Research reported in this publication was most recently supported by the National Science Foundation Partnership for Innovation award number IIP-1827565 and the Pennsylvania Commonwealth Universal Research Enhancement Program (PA CURE). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official views of any of these organizations. REFERENCES [1] A. Craik, Y. He, and J. L. Contreras-Vidal, “Deep learning for electroencephalogram (EEG) classification tasks: a review,” J. Neural Eng., vol. 16, no. 3, p. 031001, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-2552/ab0ab5. [2] A. C. Bridi, T. Q. Louro, and R. C. L. Da Silva, “Clinical Alarms in intensive care: implications of alarm fatigue for the safety of patients,” Rev. Lat. Am. Enfermagem, vol. 22, no. 6, p. 1034, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1590/0104-1169.3488.2513. [3] M. Golmohammadi, V. Shah, I. Obeid, and J. Picone, “Deep Learning Approaches for Automatic Seizure Detection from Scalp Electroencephalograms,” in Signal Processing in Medicine and Biology: Emerging Trends in Research and Applications, 1st ed., I. Obeid, I. Selesnick, and J. Picone, Eds. New York, New York, USA: Springer, 2020, pp. 233–274. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-36844-9_8. [4] “CFM Olympic Brainz Monitor.” [Online]. Available: https://newborncare.natus.com/products-services/newborn-care-products/newborn-brain-injury/cfm-olympic-brainz-monitor. [Accessed: 17-Jul-2020]. [5] M. L. Scheuer, S. B. Wilson, A. Antony, G. Ghearing, A. Urban, and A. I. Bagic, “Seizure Detection: Interreader Agreement and Detection Algorithm Assessments Using a Large Dataset,” J. Clin. Neurophysiol., 2020. https://doi.org/10.1097/WNP.0000000000000709. [6] A. Harati, M. Golmohammadi, S. Lopez, I. Obeid, and J. Picone, “Improved EEG Event Classification Using Differential Energy,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Signal Processing in Medicine and Biology Symposium, 2015, pp. 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1109/SPMB.2015.7405421. [7] V. Shah, C. Campbell, I. Obeid, and J. Picone, “Improved Spatio-Temporal Modeling in Automated Seizure Detection using Channel-Dependent Posteriors,” Neurocomputing, 2021. [8] W. Tatum, A. Husain, S. Benbadis, and P. Kaplan, Handbook of EEG Interpretation. 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