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Title: The Green Bank North Celestial Cap Pulsar Survey. III. 45 New Pulsar Timing Solutions
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  1. Abstract The Green Bank North Celestial Cap survey is a 350 MHz all-sky survey for pulsars and fast radio transients using the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. To date, the survey has discovered over 190 pulsars, including 33 millisecond pulsars and 24 rotating radio transients. Several exotic pulsars have been discovered in the survey, including PSR J1759+5036, a binary pulsar with a 176 ms spin period in an orbit with a period of 2.04 days, an eccentricity of 0.3, and a projected semi-major axis of 6.8 light seconds. Using seven years of timing data, we are able to measure one post–Keplerian parameter, advance of periastron, which has allowed us to constrain the total system mass to 2.62 ± 0.03 M ⊙ . This constraint, along with the spin period and orbital parameters, suggests that this is a double neutron star system, although we cannot entirely rule out a pulsar-white dwarf binary. This pulsar is only detectable in roughly 45% of observations, most likely due to scintillation. However, additional observations are required to determine whether there may be other contributing effects.

    Efforts are underway to use high-precision timing of pulsars in order to detect low-frequency gravitational waves. A limit to this technique is the timing noise generated by dispersion in the plasma along the line of sight to the pulsar, including the solar wind. The effects due to the solar wind vary with time, influenced by the change in solar activity on different time-scales, ranging up to ∼11 yr for a solar cycle. The solar wind contribution depends strongly on the angle between the pulsar line of sight and the solar disc, and is a dominant effect at small separations. Although solar wind models to mitigate these effects do exist, they do not account for all the effects of the solar wind and its temporal changes. Since low-frequency pulsar observations are most sensitive to these dispersive delays, they are most suited to test the efficacy of these models and identify alternative approaches. Here, we investigate the efficacy of some solar wind models commonly used in pulsar timing using long-term, high-cadence data on six pulsars taken with the Long Wavelength Array, and compare them with an operational solar wind model. Our results show that stationary models of the solar wind correction aremore »insufficient to achieve the timing noise desired by pulsar timing experiments, and we need to use non-stationary models, which are informed by other solar wind observations, to obtain accurate timing residuals.

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  3. ABSTRACT Transitional millisecond pulsars are millisecond pulsars that switch between a rotation-powered millisecond pulsar state and an accretion-powered X-ray binary state, and are thought to be an evolutionary stage between neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries and millisecond pulsars. So far, only three confirmed systems have been identified in addition to a handful of candidates. We present the results of a multiwavelength study of the low-mass X-ray binary NGC 6652B in the globular cluster NGC 6652, including simultaneous radio and X-ray observations taken by the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array and the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and optical spectroscopy and photometry. This source is the second brightest X-ray source in NGC 6652 ($L_{\textrm {X}}\sim 1.8 \times 10^{34}{\, \mathrm{erg\, s}^{-1}}$) and is known to be variable. We observe several X-ray flares over the duration of our X-ray observations, in addition to persistent radio emission and occasional radio flares. Simultaneous radio and X-ray data show no clear evidence of anticorrelated variability. Optical spectra of NGC 6652B indicate variable, broad H α emission that transitions from double-peaked emission to absorption over a time-scale of hours. We consider a variety of possible explanations for the source behaviour, and conclude that based on the radio and X-ray luminosities,more »short time-scale variability and X-ray flaring, and optical spectra, NGC 6652B is best explained as a transitional millisecond pulsar candidate that displays prolonged X-ray flaring behaviour. However, this could only be confirmed with observations of a change to the rotation-powered millisecond pulsar state.« less