Background Porosity and other defects resultant by additive manufacturing processes are well-known to affect mechanical properties. However, there remains limited understanding regarding how the internal defect structure influences the evolution of the local strain field, as experimental investigations have not presented direct measurements of the evolving internal strain field in the presence of defects. Objective Interrupted in-situ tensile tests in a lab-based X-ray computed tomography machine were used to investigate the evolution of the strain field around internal defects. The evolution of the internal strain field facilitated examination of the role of specific defects in the macroscopic deformation of additively manufactured tensile coupons. Methods Samples were produced in 316L stainless steel by laser powder bed fusion. An in situ loading device was utilized to subject the samples to tensile failure within a tomographic scanning environment. Digital volume correlation was utilized to directly determine local strain levels within the additively manufactured components in the vicinity of porosity defects. Results Effects of porosity on strain localization and eventual failure of the samples were evaluated. Characteristics of the porosity distribution, including presence of porosity at the surface or near-surface of components, as well as the proximity of pores to each other were foundmore »
Contrasting the Role of Pores on the Stress State Dependent Fracture Behavior of Additively Manufactured Low and High Ductility Metals
This study investigates the disparate impact of internal pores on the fracture behavior of two metal alloys fabricated via laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) additive manufacturing (AM)—316L stainless steel and Ti-6Al-4V. Data from mechanical tests over a range of stress states for dense samples and those with intentionally introduced penny-shaped pores of various diameters were used to contrast the combined impact of pore size and stress state on the fracture behavior of these two materials. The fracture data were used to calibrate and compare multiple fracture models (Mohr-Coulomb, Hosford-Coulomb, and maximum stress criteria), with results compared in equivalent stress (versus stress triaxiality and Lode angle) space, as well as in their conversions to equivalent strain space. For L-PBF 316L, the strain-based fracture models captured the stress state dependent failure behavior up to the largest pore size studied (2400 µm diameter, 16% cross-sectional area of gauge region), while for L-PBF Ti-6Al-4V, the stress-based fracture models better captured the change in failure behavior with pore size up to the largest pore size studied. This difference can be attributed to the relatively high ductility of 316L stainless steel, for which all samples underwent significant plastic deformation prior to failure, contrasted with the relatively more »
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Effects of Build Orientation on Fatigue Performance of Ti-6Al-4V Parts Fabricated via Laser-Based Powder Bed FusionThe effects of build orientation on the fatigue behavior of additively-manufactured Ti-6Al- 4V using a Laser-Based Power Bed Fusion (L-PBF) process is investigated. Ti-6Al-4V rods were manufactured in vertical, horizontal, and 45º angle orientations. The specimens were then machined and polished along the gage section in order to reduce the effects of surface roughness on fatigue behavior. Fully-reversed strain-controlled uniaxial fatigue tests were performed at various strain amplitudes with frequencies adjusted to maintain an average constant strain rate throughout testing. Results indicate slight variation in fatigue behavior of specimens fabricated in the different orientations investigated. Fractography was conducted using scanning electron microscopy after mechanical testing in order to investigate the crack initiation sites and determine the defect responsible for the failure. The experimental program utilized and results obtained will be presented and discussed.
Additive manufacturing is a revolutionary technology that offers a different pathway for material processing and design. However, innovations in either new materials or new processing technologies can seldom be successful without a synergistic combination. We demonstrate an in situ design approach to make alloys spatially modulated in concentration by using laser-powder bed fusion. We show that the partial homogenization of two dissimilar alloy melts—Ti-6Al-4V and a small amount of 316L stainless steel—allows us to produce micrometer-scale concentration modulations of the elements that are contained in 316L in the Ti-6Al-4V matrix. The corresponding phase stability modulation creates a fine scale–modulated β + α′ dual-phase microstructure that exhibits a progressive transformation-induced plasticity effect, which leads to a high tensile strength of ~1.3 gigapascals with a uniform elongation of ~9% and an excellent work-hardening capacity of >300 megapascals. This approach creates a pathway for concentration-modulated heterogeneous alloy design for structural and functional applications.
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Hydride-dehydride (HDH) Ti-6Al-4V powders with non-spherical particle morphology are typically not used in laser-beam powder bed fusion (LB-PBF). Here, HDH powders with two size distributions of 50-120 μm (fine) and 75-175 μm (coarse) are compared for flowability, packing density, and resultant density of the LB-PBF manufactured parts. It is shown that a suitable laser power-velocity-hatch spacing combination can result in part production with a relative density of > 99.5% in LB-PBF of HDH Ti-6Al-4V powder. Size, morphology and spatial distribution of pores are analyzed in 2D. The boundaries of the lack-of-fusion and keyhole porosity formation regimes are assessed and showed that the build rate ratio of 1.5-2 would be attained to produce parts with a relative density of > 99.5%. The synchrotron x-ray high-speed imaging reveals the laser-powder interaction and potential porosity formation mechanism associated with HDH powder. It is found that lower powder packing density of coarse powder and high keyhole fluctuation result in higher fractions of porosity within builds during the LB-PBF process.