skip to main content

Title: A combined molecular dynamics/Monte Carlo simulation of Cu thin film growth on TiN substrates: Illustration of growth mechanisms and comparison with experiments
; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Applied Surface Science
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Synopsis Previous research has demonstrated that testosterone (T) can inhibit growth in female-larger species and stimulate growth in male-larger species, but the underlying mechanisms of this regulatory bipotentiality have not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of T on the expression of hepatic insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) mRNA and circulating IGF-1 hormone in Sceloporus undulatus, a species of lizard in which females grow faster to become larger than males and in which T inhibits growth. Experiments were performed in captivity on mature female and male adults in the asymptotic phase of their growth curve and on actively growing, pre-reproductive juveniles. In adult males, the expression of hepatic IGF-1 mRNA increased following surgical castration and returned to control levels with T replacement; in intact adult females, exogenous T had no effect on IGF-1 mRNA expression. In juveniles, T significantly reduced both growth and the expression of hepatic IGF-1 mRNA to similar extents in intact females and in castrated males. The relative inhibitory effects of T on mRNA expression were greater in juveniles than in adults. Plasma IGF-1 hormone was about four times higher in juveniles than in adults, but T had no significant effect on IGF-1 hormone inmore »either sex or in either age group. Our finding of inhibition of the expression of hepatic IGF-1 mRNA stands in contrast to the stimulatory effects of T in the published body of literature. We attribute our novel finding to our use of a species in which T inhibits rather than stimulates growth. Our findings begin to explain how T has the regulatory bipotentiality to be stimulatory in some species and inhibitory in others, requiring only an evolutionary reversal in the molecular regulation of growth-regulatory genes including IGF-1. Further comparative transcriptomic studies will be required to fully resolve the molecular mechanism of growth inhibition.« less
  2. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) are two extensively studied membrane-bound receptor tyrosine kinase proteins that are frequently overexpressed in many cancers. As a result, these receptor families constitute attractive targets for imaging and therapeutic applications in the detection and treatment of cancer. This review explores the dynamic structure and structure-function relationships of these two growth factor receptors and their significance as it relates to theranostics of cancer, followed by some of the common inhibition modalities frequently employed to target EGFR and VEGFR, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), antibodies, nanobodies, and peptides. A summary of the recent advances in molecular imaging techniques, including positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and optical imaging (OI), and in particular, near-IR fluorescence imaging using tetrapyrrolic-based fluorophores, concludes this review.