- Award ID(s):
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Kubatko, Laura
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Systematic Biology
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Ruane, Sara (Ed.)Abstract Some phylogenetic problems remain unresolved even when large amounts of sequence data are analyzed and methods that accommodate processes such as incomplete lineage sorting are employed. In addition to investigating biological sources of phylogenetic incongruence, it is also important to reduce noise in the phylogenomic dataset by using appropriate filtering approach that addresses gene tree estimation errors. We present the results of a case study in manakins, focusing on the very difficult clade comprising the genera Antilophia and Chiroxiphia. Previous studies suggest that Antilophia is nested within Chiroxiphia, though relationships among Antilophia+Chiroxiphia species have been highly unstable. We extracted more than 11,000 loci (ultra-conserved elements and introns) from whole genomes and conducted analyses using concatenation and multispecies coalescent methods. Topologies resulting from analyses using all loci differed depending on the data type and analytical method, with 2 clades (Antilophia+Chiroxiphia and Manacus+Pipra+Machaeopterus) in the manakin tree showing incongruent results. We hypothesized that gene trees that conflicted with a long coalescent branch (e.g., the branch uniting Antilophia+Chiroxiphia) might be enriched for cases of gene tree estimation error, so we conducted analyses that either constrained those gene trees to include monophyly of Antilophia+Chiroxiphia or excluded these loci. While constraining trees reduced some incongruence, excluding the trees led to completely congruent species trees, regardless of the data type or model of sequence evolution used. We found that a suite of gene metrics (most importantly the number of informative sites and likelihood of intralocus recombination) collectively explained the loci that resulted in non-monophyly of Antilophia+Chiroxiphia. We also found evidence for introgression that may have contributed to the discordant topologies we observe in Antilophia+Chiroxiphia and led to deviations from expectations given the multispecies coalescent model. Our study highlights the importance of identifying factors that can obscure phylogenetic signal when dealing with recalcitrant phylogenetic problems, such as gene tree estimation error, incomplete lineage sorting, and reticulation events. [Birds; c-gene; data type; gene estimation error; model fit; multispecies coalescent; phylogenomics; reticulation]more » « less
With the continued adoption of genome‐scale data in evolutionary biology comes the challenge of adequately harnessing the information to make accurate phylogenetic inferences. Coalescent‐based methods of species tree inference have become common, and concatenation has been shown in simulation to perform well, particularly when levels of incomplete lineage sorting are low. However, simulation conditions are often overly simplistic, leaving empiricists with uncertainty regarding analytical tools. We use a large ultraconserved element data set (>3,000 loci) from rattlesnakes of the
Crotalus triseriatusgroup to delimit lineages and estimate species trees using concatenation and several coalescent‐based methods. Unpartitioned and partitioned maximum likelihood and Bayesian analysis of the concatenated matrix yield a topology identical to coalescent analysis of a subset of the data in bpp. ASTRAL analysis on a subset of the more variable loci also results in a tree consistent with concatenation and bpp, whereas the SVDquartetsphylogeny differs at additional nodes. The size of the concatenated matrix has a strong effect on species tree inference using SVDquartets, warranting additional investigation on optimal data characteristics for this method. Species delimitation analyses suggest up to 16 unique lineages may be present within the C. triseriatusgroup, with divergences occurring during the Neogene and Quaternary. Network analyses suggest hybridization within the group is relatively rare. Altogether, our results reaffirm the Mexican highlands as a biodiversity hotspot and suggest that coalescent‐based species tree inference on data subsets can provide a strongly supported species tree consistent with concatenation of all loci with a large amount of missing data.
Nielsen, Rasmus (Ed.)
An important goal of evolutionary genomics is to identify genomic regions whose substitution rates differ among lineages. For example, genomic regions experiencing accelerated molecular evolution in some lineages may provide insight into links between genotype and phenotype. Several comparative genomics methods have been developed to identify genomic accelerations between species, including a Bayesian method called PhyloAcc, which models shifts in substitution rate in multiple target lineages on a phylogeny. However, few methods consider the possibility of discordance between the trees of individual loci and the species tree due to incomplete lineage sorting, which might cause false positives. Here, we present PhyloAcc-GT, which extends PhyloAcc by modeling gene tree heterogeneity. Given a species tree, we adopt the multispecies coalescent model as the prior distribution of gene trees, use Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) for inference, and design novel MCMC moves to sample gene trees efficiently. Through extensive simulations, we show that PhyloAcc-GT outperforms PhyloAcc and other methods in identifying target lineage-specific accelerations and detecting complex patterns of rate shifts, and is robust to specification of population size parameters. PhyloAcc-GT is usually more conservative than PhyloAcc in calling convergent rate shifts because it identifies more accelerations on ancestral than on terminal branches. We apply PhyloAcc-GT to two examples of convergent evolution: flightlessness in ratites and marine mammal adaptations, and show that PhyloAcc-GT is a robust tool to identify shifts in substitution rate associated with specific target lineages while accounting for incomplete lineage sorting.
To examine phylogenetic heterogeneity in turtle evolution, we collected thousands of high-confidence single-copy orthologs from 19 genome assemblies representative of extant turtle diversity and estimated a phylogeny with multispecies coalescent and concatenated partitioned methods. We also collected next-generation sequences from 26 turtle species and assembled millions of biallelic markers to reconstruct phylogenies based on annotated regions from the western painted turtle (Chrysemys picta bellii) genome (coding regions, introns, untranslated regions, intergenic, and others). We then measured gene tree-species tree discordance, as well as gene and site heterogeneity at each node in the inferred trees, and tested for temporal patterns in phylogenomic conflict across turtle evolution. We found strong and consistent support for all bifurcations in the inferred turtle species phylogenies. However, a number of genes, sites, and genomic features supported alternate relationships between turtle taxa. Our results suggest that gene tree-species tree discordance in these data sets is likely driven by population-level processes such as incomplete lineage sorting. We found very little effect of substitutional saturation on species tree topologies, and no clear phylogenetic patterns in codon usage bias and compositional heterogeneity. There was no correlation between gene and site concordance, node age, and DNA substitution rate across most annotated genomic regions. Our study demonstrates that heterogeneity is to be expected even in well-resolved clades such as turtles, and that future phylogenomic studies should aim to sample as much of the genome as possible in order to obtain accurate phylogenies for assessing conservation priorities in turtles. [Discordance; genomes; phylogeny; turtles.]
The role of hybridization and subsequent introgression has been demonstrated in an increasing number of species. Recently, Fontaine
et al. ( Science, 347, 2015, 1258524) conducted a phylogenomic analysis of six members of the Anopheles gambiaespecies complex. Their analysis revealed a reticulate evolutionary history and pointed to extensive introgression on all four autosomal arms. The study further highlighted the complex evolutionary signals that the co‐occurrence of incomplete lineage sorting ( ILS) and introgression can give rise to in phylogenomic analyses. While tree‐based methodologies were used in the study, phylogenetic networks provide a more natural model to capture reticulate evolutionary histories. In this work, we reanalyse the Anophelesdata using a recently devised framework that combines the multispecies coalescent with phylogenetic networks. This framework allows us to capture ILSand introgression simultaneously, and forms the basis for statistical methods for inferring reticulate evolutionary histories. The new analysis reveals a phylogenetic network with multiple hybridization events, some of which differ from those reported in the original study. To elucidate the extent and patterns of introgression across the genome, we devise a new method that quantifies the use of reticulation branches in the phylogenetic network by each genomic region. Applying the method to the mosquito data set reveals the evolutionary history of all the chromosomes. This study highlights the utility of ‘network thinking’ and the new insights it can uncover, in particular in phylogenomic analyses of large data sets with extensive gene tree incongruence.