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Dynamic and steady-state aspects of wave propagation are deeply connected in lossless open systems in which the scattering matrix is unitary. There is then an equivalence among the energy excited within the medium through all channels, the Wigner time delay, which is the sum of dwell times in all channels coupled to the medium, and the density of states. But these equivalences fall away in the presence of material loss or gain. In this paper, we use microwave measurements, numerical simulations, and theoretical analysis to discover the changing relationships among fundamental wave properties with loss and gain, and their dependence upon dimensionality and spectral overlap. We begin with the demonstrations that the transmission time in random 1D media is equal to the density of states even in the presence of ultrastrong absorption and that its ensemble average is independent of the strengths of scattering and absorption. In contrast, the Wigner time becomes imaginary in the presence of loss, with real and imaginary parts that fall with absorption. In multichannel media, the transmission time remains equal to the density of states and is independent of the scattering strength in unitary systems but falls with absorption to a degree that increases with the strengths of absorption and scattering, and the number of channels coupled to the medium. We show that the relationships between key propagation variables in non-Hermitian systems can be understood in terms of the singularities of the phase of the determinant of the transmission matrix. The poles of the transmission matrix are the same as those of the scattering matrix, but the transmission zeros are fundamentally different. Whereas the zeros of the scattering matrix are the complex conjugates of the poles, the transmission zeros are topological: in unitary systems they occur only singly on the real axis or as conjugate pairs. We follow the evolution and statistics of zeros in the complex plane as random samples are deformed. The sensitivity of the spacing of zeros in the complex plane with deformation of the sample has a square-root singularity at a zero point at which two single zeros and a complex pair interconvert. The transmission time is a sum of Lorentzian functions associated with poles and zeros. The sum over poles is the density of states with an average that is independent of scattering and dissipation. But the sum over zeros changes with loss, gain, scattering strength and the number of channels in ways that make it possible to control ultranarrow spectral features in transmission and transmission time. We show that the field, including the contribution of the still coherent incident wave, is a sum over modal partial fractions with amplitudes that are independent of loss and gain. The energy excited may be expressed in terms of the resonances of the medium and is equal to the dwell time even in the presence of loss or gain.more » « less
null (Ed.)Abstract We outline and interpret a recently developed theory of impedance matching or reflectionless excitation of arbitrary finite photonic structures in any dimension. The theory includes both the case of guided wave and free-space excitation. It describes the necessary and sufficient conditions for perfectly reflectionless excitation to be possible and specifies how many physical parameters must be tuned to achieve this. In the absence of geometric symmetries, such as parity and time-reversal, the product of parity and time-reversal, or rotational symmetry, the tuning of at least one structural parameter will be necessary to achieve reflectionless excitation. The theory employs a recently identified set of complex frequency solutions of the Maxwell equations as a starting point, which are defined by having zero reflection into a chosen set of input channels, and which are referred to as R-zeros. Tuning is generically necessary in order to move an R-zero to the real frequency axis, where it becomes a physical steady-state impedance-matched solution, which we refer to as a reflectionless scattering mode (RSM). In addition, except in single-channel systems, the RSM corresponds to a particular input wavefront, and any other wavefront will generally not be reflectionless. It is useful to consider the theory as representing a generalization of the concept of critical coupling of a resonator, but it holds in arbitrary dimension, for arbitrary number of channels, and even when resonances are not spectrally isolated. In a structure with parity and time-reversal symmetry (a real dielectric function) or with parity–time symmetry, generically a subset of the R-zeros has real frequencies, and reflectionless states exist at discrete frequencies without tuning. However, they do not exist within every spectral range, as they do in the special case of the Fabry–Pérot or two-mirror resonator, due to a spontaneous symmetry-breaking phenomenon when two RSMs meet. Such symmetry-breaking transitions correspond to a new kind of exceptional point, only recently identified, at which the shape of the reflection and transmission resonance lineshape is flattened. Numerical examples of RSMs are given for one-dimensional multimirror cavities, a two-dimensional multiwaveguide junction, and a multimode waveguide functioning as a perfect mode converter. Two solution methods to find R-zeros and RSMs are discussed. The first one is a straightforward generalization of the complex scaling or perfectly matched layer method and is applicable in a number of important cases; the second one involves a mode-specific boundary matching method that has only recently been demonstrated and can be applied to all geometries for which the theory is valid, including free space and multimode waveguide problems of the type solved here.more » « less
Oxygen availability is a critical determinant of microbial biofilm activity and antibiotic susceptibility. However, measuring oxygen gradients in these systems remains difficult, with the standard microelectrode approach being both invasive and limited to single‐point measurement. The goal of the study was to develop a19F MRI approach for 2D oxygen mapping in biofilm systems and to visualize oxygen consumption behavior in real time during antibiotic therapy.
Oxygen‐sensing beads were created by encapsulating an emulsion of oxygen‐sensing fluorocarbon into alginate gel.
Escherichia colibiofilms were grown in and on the alginate matrix, which was contained inside a packed bed column subjected to nutrient flow, mimicking the complex porous structure of human wound tissue, and subjected to antibiotic challenge. Results
The linear relationship between19F spin‐lattice relaxation rate
R1and local oxygen concentration permitted noninvasive spatial mapping of oxygen distribution in real time over the course of biofilm growth and subsequent antibiotic challenge. This technique was used to visualize persistence of microbial oxygen respiration during continuous gentamicin administration, providing a time series of complete spatial maps detailing the continued bacterial utilization of oxygen during prolonged chemotherapy in an in vitro biofilm model with complex spatial structure. Conclusions
Antibiotic exposure temporarily causes oxygen consumption to enter a pseudosteady state wherein oxygen distribution becomes fixed; oxygen sink expansion resumes quickly after antibiotic clearance. This technique may provide valuable information for future investigations of biofilms by permitting the study of complex geometries (typical of in vivo biofilms) and facilitating noninvasive oxygen measurement.
Classical statistical mechanics has long relied on assumptions such as the equipartition theorem to understand the behavior of the complicated systems of many particles. The successes of this approach are well known, but there are also many well-known issues with classical theories. For some of these, the introduction of quantum mechanics is necessary, e.g., the ultraviolet catastrophe. However, more recently, the validity of assumptions such as the equipartition of energy in classical systems was called into question. For instance, a detailed analysis of a simplified model for blackbody radiation was apparently able to deduce the Stefan–Boltzmann law using purely classical statistical mechanics. This novel approach involved a careful analysis of a “metastable” state which greatly delays the approach to equilibrium. In this paper, we perform a broad analysis of such a metastable state in the classical Fermi–Pasta–Ulam–Tsingou (FPUT) models. We treat both the α-FPUT and β-FPUT models, exploring both quantitative and qualitative behavior. After introducing the models, we validate our methodology by reproducing the well-known FPUT recurrences in both models and confirming earlier results on how the strength of the recurrences depends on a single system parameter. We establish that the metastable state in the FPUT models can be defined by using a single degree-of-freedom measure—the spectral entropy (η)—and show that this measure has the power to quantify the distance from equipartition. For the α-FPUT model, a comparison to the integrable Toda lattice allows us to define rather clearly the lifetime of the metastable state for the standard initial conditions. We next devise a method to measure the lifetime of the metastable state tm in the α-FPUT model that reduces the sensitivity to the exact initial conditions. Our procedure involves averaging over random initial phases in the plane of initial conditions, the P1-Q1 plane. Applying this procedure gives us a power-law scaling for tm, with the important result that the power laws for different system sizes collapse down to the same exponent as Eα2→0. We examine the energy spectrum E(k) over time in the α-FPUT model and again compare the results to those of the Toda model. This analysis tentatively supports a method for an irreversible energy dissipation process suggested by Onorato et al.: four-wave and six-wave resonances as described by the “wave turbulence” theory. We next apply a similar approach to the β-FPUT model. Here, we explore in particular the different behavior for the two different signs of β. Finally, we describe a procedure for calculating tm in the β-FPUT model, a very different task than for the α-FPUT model, because the β-FPUT model is not a truncation of an integrable nonlinear model.more » « less
Time-frequency (TF) filtering of analog signals has played a crucial role in the development of radio-frequency communications and is currently being recognized as an essential capability for communications, both classical and quantum, in the optical frequency domain. How best to design optical time-frequency (TF) filters to pass a targeted temporal mode (TM), and to reject background (noise) photons in the TF detection window? The solution for ‘coherent’ TF filtering is known—the quantum pulse gate—whereas the conventional, more common method is implemented by a sequence of incoherent spectral filtering and temporal gating operations. To compare these two methods, we derive a general formalism for two-stage incoherent time-frequency filtering, finding expressions for signal pulse transmission efficiency, and for the ability to discriminate TMs, which allows the blocking of unwanted background light. We derive the tradeoff between efficiency and TM discrimination ability, and find a remarkably concise relation between these two quantities and the time-bandwidth product of the combined filters. We apply the formalism to two examples—rectangular filters or Gaussian filters—both of which have known orthogonal-function decompositions. The formalism can be applied to any state of light occupying the input temporal mode, e.g., ‘classical’ coherent-state signals or pulsed single-photon states of light. In contrast to the radio-frequency domain, where coherent detection is standard and one can use coherent matched filtering to reject noise, in the optical domain direct detection is optimal in a number of scenarios where the signal flux is extremely small. Our analysis shows how the insertion loss and SNR change when one uses incoherent optical filters to reject background noise, followed by direct detection, e.g. photon counting. We point out implications in classical and quantum optical communications. As an example, we study quantum key distribution, wherein strong rejection of background noise is necessary to maintain a high quality of entanglement, while high signal transmission is needed to ensure a useful key generation rate.