skip to main content

Title: Post-Newtonian gravitational and scalar waves in scalar-Gauss–Bonnet gravity
Abstract Gravitational waves emitted by black hole binary inspiral and mergers enable unprecedented strong-field tests of gravity, requiring accurate theoretical modeling of the expected signals in extensions of general relativity. In this paper we model the gravitational wave emission of inspiralling binaries in scalar Gauss–Bonnet gravity theories. Going beyond the weak-coupling approximation, we derive the gravitational waveform to relative first post-Newtonian order beyond the quadrupole approximation and calculate new contributions from nonlinear curvature terms. We also compute the scalar waveform to relative 0.5PN order beyond the leading −0.5PN order terms. We quantify the effect of these terms and provide ready-to-implement gravitational wave and scalar waveforms as well as the Fourier domain phase for quasi-circular binaries. We also perform a parameter space study, which indicates that the values of black hole scalar charges play a crucial role in the detectability of deviation from general relativity. We also compare the scalar waveforms to numerical relativity simulations to assess the impact of the relativistic corrections to the scalar radiation. Our results provide important foundations for future precision tests of gravity.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
2004879 2110416
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Classical and Quantum Gravity
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Amplitude and phase of the gravitational waveform from compact binary systems can be decomposed in terms of their mass- and current-type multipole moments. In a modified theory of gravity, one or more of these multipole moments could deviate from general theory of relativity. In this work, we show that a waveform model that parametrizes the amplitude and phase in terms of the multipole moments of the binary can facilitate a novel multiparameter test of general relativity with exquisite precision. Using a network of next-generation gravitational-wave observatories, simultaneous deviation in the leading seven multipoles of a GW190814-like binary can be bounded to within 6%–40% depending on the multipole order, while supermassive black hole mergers observed by the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna achieve a bound of 0.3%–2%. We further argue that bounds from multipoles can be uniquely mapped onto other parametrized tests of general relativity and have the potential to become a downstream analysis from which bounds of other parametric tests of general relativity can be derived. The set of multipole parameters, therefore, provides an excellent basis to carry out precision tests of general relativity. 
    more » « less
  2. Abstract We explicitly demonstrate that current numerical relativity techniques are able to accurately evolve black hole binaries with mass ratios of the order of 1000:1. This proof of principle is relevant for future third generation gravitational wave detectors and space mission LISA, as by purely numerical methods we would be able to accurately compute gravitational waves from the last stages of black hole mergers, as directly predicted by general relativity. We perform a sequence of simulations in the intermediate to small mass ratio regime, m 1 p / m 2 p = 1 / 7 , 1 / 16 , 1 / 32 , 1 / 64 , 1 / 128 , 1 / 256 , 1 / 512 , 1 / 1024 , with the small hole starting from rest at a proper distance D ≈ 13 M . We compare these headon full numerical evolutions with the corresponding semianalytic point particle perturbative results finding an impressive agreement for the total gravitational radiated energy and linear momentum as well as for the waveform spectra. We display numerical convergence of the results and identify the minimal numerical resolutions required to accurately solve for these very low amplitude gravitational waves. This work represents a first step towards the considerable challenge of applying numerical-relativity waveforms to interpreting gravitational-wave observations by LISA and next-generation ground-based gravitational-wave detectors. 
    more » « less
  3. Detections of gravitational waves emitted from binary black hole coalescences allow us to probe the strong-field dynamics of general relativity (GR). One can compare the observed gravitational-wave signals with theoretical waveform models to constrain possible deviations from GR. Any physics that is not included in these waveform models might show up as apparent GR deviations. The waveform models used in current tests of GR describe binaries on quasicircular orbits, since most of the binaries detected by ground-based gravitational-wave detectors are expected to have negligible eccentricities. Thus, a signal from an eccentric binary in GR is likely to show up as a deviation from GR in the current implementation of these tests. We study the response of four standard tests of GR to eccentric binary black hole signals with the forecast O4 sensitivity of the LIGO-Virgo network. Specifically, we consider two parametrized tests (TIGER and FTI), the modified dispersion relation test, and the inspiral-merger-ringdown consistency test. To model eccentric signals, we use nonspinning numerical relativity simulations from the SXS catalog with three mass ratios (1, 2, 3), which we scale to a redshifted total mass of 80M⊙ and luminosity distance of 400 Mpc. For each of these mass ratios, we consider signals with eccentricities of ∼0.05 and ∼0.1 at 17 Hz. We find that signals with larger eccentricity lead to very significant false GR deviations in most tests while signals having smaller eccentricity lead to significant deviations in some tests. For the larger eccentricity cases, one would even get a deviation from GR with TIGER at ∼90% credibility at a distance of ≳1.5 Gpc. Thus, it will be necessary to exclude the possibility of an eccentric binary in order to make any claim about detecting a deviation from GR. 
    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    We evaluate several neural-network architectures, both convolutional and recurrent, for gravitational-wave time-series feature extraction by performing point parameter estimation on noisy waveforms from binary-black-hole mergers. We build datasets of 100 000 elements for each of four different waveform models (or approximants) in order to test how approximant choice affects feature extraction. Our choices includeSEOBNRv4PandIMRPhenomPv3, which contain only the dominant quadrupole emission mode, alongsideIMRPhenomPv3HMandNRHybSur3dq8, which also account for high-order modes. Each dataset element is injected into detector noise corresponding to the third observing run of the LIGO-Virgo-KAGRA (LVK) collaboration. We identify the temporal convolutional network architecture as the overall best performer in terms of training and validation losses and absence of overfitting to data. Comparison of results between datasets shows that the choice of waveform approximant for the creation of a dataset conditions the feature extraction ability of a trained network. Hence, care should be taken when building a dataset for the training of neural networks, as certain approximants may result in better network convergence of evaluation metrics. However, this performance does not necessarily translate to data which is more faithful to numerical relativity simulations. We also apply this network on actual signals from LVK runs, finding that its feature-extracting performance can be effective on real data.

    more » « less
  5. The inspiral-merger-ringdown (IMR) consistency test checks the consistency of the final mass and final spin of a binary black hole merger remnant, independently inferred via the inspiral and merger-ringdown parts of the waveform. As binaries are expected to be nearly circularized when entering the frequency band of ground-based detectors, tests of general relativity (GR) currently employ quasicircular waveforms. We quantify the effect of residual orbital eccentricity on the IMR consistency test. We find that eccentricity causes a significant systematic bias in the inferred final mass and spin of the remnant black hole at an orbital eccentricity (defined at 10 Hz) of e0≳0.1 in the LIGO band (for a total binary mass in the range 65-200M⊙). For binary black holes observed by Cosmic Explorer (CE), the systematic bias becomes significant for e0≳0.015 (for 200-600M⊙ systems). This eccentricity-induced bias on the final mass and spin leads to an apparent inconsistency in the IMR consistency test, manifesting as a false violation of GR. Hence, eccentric corrections to waveform models are important for constructing a robust test of GR, especially for third-generation detectors. We also estimate the eccentric corrections to the relationship between the inspiral parameters and the final mass and final spin; they are shown to be quite small. 
    more » « less