skip to main content


Title: Towards the Synthesis of Parent-Infant Facial Interactions
This work is motivated by the need to automate the analysis of parent-infant interactions to better understand the existence of any potential behavioral patterns useful for the early diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It presents an approach for synthesizing the facial expression exchanges that occur during parent-infant interactions. This is accomplished by developing a novel approach that uses landmarks when synthesizing changing facial expressions. The proposed model consists of two components: (i) The first is a landmark converter that receives a set of facial landmarks and the target emotion as input and outputs a set of new landmarks transformed to match the emotion. (ii) The second component involves an image converter that takes in an input image, a target landmark and a target emotion and outputs a face transformed to match the input emotion. The inclusion of landmarks in the generation process proves useful in the generation of baby facial expressions; babies have somewhat different facial musculature and facial dynamics than adults. This paper presents a realistic-looking matrix of changing facial expressions sampled from a 2-D emotion continuum (valence and arousal) and displays successfully transferred facial expressions from real-life mother-infant dyads to novel ones.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1846076
NSF-PAR ID:
10321197
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
2021 16th IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (FG 2021)
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Over the last decade, facial landmark tracking and 3D reconstruction have gained considerable attention due to their numerous applications such as human-computer interactions, facial expression analysis, and emotion recognition, etc. Traditional approaches require users to be confined to a particular location and face a camera under constrained recording conditions (e.g., without occlusions and under good lighting conditions). This highly restricted setting prevents them from being deployed in many application scenarios involving human motions. In this paper, we propose the first single-earpiece lightweight biosensing system, BioFace-3D, that can unobtrusively, continuously, and reliably sense the entire facial movements, track 2D facial landmarks, and further render 3D facial animations. Our single-earpiece biosensing system takes advantage of the cross-modal transfer learning model to transfer the knowledge embodied in a high-grade visual facial landmark detection model to the low-grade biosignal domain. After training, our BioFace-3D can directly perform continuous 3D facial reconstruction from the biosignals, without any visual input. Without requiring a camera positioned in front of the user, this paradigm shift from visual sensing to biosensing would introduce new opportunities in many emerging mobile and IoT applications. Extensive experiments involving 16 participants under various settings demonstrate that BioFace-3D can accurately track 53 major facial landmarks with only 1.85 mm average error and 3.38\% normalized mean error, which is comparable with most state-of-the-art camera-based solutions. The rendered 3D facial animations, which are in consistency with the real human facial movements, also validate the system's capability in continuous 3D facial reconstruction. 
    more » « less
  2. Morph images threaten Facial Recognition Systems (FRS) by presenting as multiple individuals, allowing an adversary to swap identities with another subject. Morph generation using generative adversarial networks (GANs) results in high-quality morphs unaffected by the spatial artifacts caused by landmark-based methods, but there is an apparent loss in identity with standard GAN-based morphing methods. In this paper, we propose a novel StyleGAN morph generation technique by introducing a landmark enforcement method to resolve this issue. Considering this method, we aim to enforce the landmarks of the morphed image to represent the spatial average of the landmarks of the bona fide faces and subsequently the morph images to inherit the geometric identity of both bona fide faces. Exploration of the latent space of our model is conducted using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to accentuate the effect of both the bona fide faces on the morphed latent representation and address the identity loss issue with latent domain averaging. Additionally, to improve high frequency reconstruction in the morphs, we study the train-ability of the noise input for the StyleGAN2 model. 
    more » « less
  3. Identifying people in photographs is a critical task in a wide variety of domains, from national security [7] to journalism [14] to human rights investigations [1]. The task is also fundamentally complex and challenging. With the world population at 7.6 billion and growing, the candidate pool is large. Studies of human face recognition ability show that the average person incorrectly identifies two people as similar 20–30% of the time, and trained police detectives do not perform significantly better [11]. Computer vision-based face recognition tools have gained considerable ground and are now widely available commercially, but comparisons to human performance show mixed results at best [2,10,16]. Automated face recognition techniques, while powerful, also have constraints that may be impractical for many real-world contexts. For example, face recognition systems tend to suffer when the target image or reference images have poor quality or resolution, as blemishes or discolorations may be incorrectly recognized as false positives for facial landmarks. Additionally, most face recognition systems ignore some salient facial features, like scars or other skin characteristics, as well as distinctive non-facial features, like ear shape or hair or facial hair styles. This project investigates how we can overcome these limitations to support person identification tasks. By adjusting confidence thresholds, users of face recognition can generally expect high recall (few false negatives) at the cost of low precision (many false positives). Therefore, we focus our work on the “last mile” of person identification, i.e., helping a user find the correct match among a large set of similarlooking candidates suggested by face recognition. Our approach leverages the powerful capabilities of the human vision system and collaborative sensemaking via crowdsourcing to augment the complementary strengths of automatic face recognition. The result is a novel technology pipeline combining collective intelligence and computer vision. We scope this project to focus on identifying soldiers in photos from the American Civil War era (1861– 1865). An estimated 4,000,000 soldiers fought in the war, and most were photographed at least once, due to decreasing costs, the increasing robustness of the format, and the critical events separating friends and family [17]. Over 150 years later, the identities of most of these portraits have been lost, but as museums and archives increasingly digitize and publish their collections online, the pool of reference photos and information has never been more accessible. Historians, genealogists, and collectors work tirelessly to connect names with faces, using largely manual identification methods [3,9]. Identifying people in historical photos is important for preserving material culture [9], correcting the historical record [13], and recognizing contributions of marginalized groups [4], among other reasons. 
    more » « less
  4. null (Ed.)
    The performance of facial expression recognition (FER) systems has improved with recent advances in machine learning. While studies have reported impressive accuracies in detecting emotion from posed expressions in static images, there are still important challenges in developing FER systems for videos, especially in the presence of speech. Speech articulation modulates the orofacial area, changing the facial appearance. These facial movements induced by speech introduce noise, reducing the performance of an FER system. Solving this problem is important if we aim to study more naturalistic environment or applications in the wild. We propose a novel approach to compensate for lexical information that does not require phonetic information during inference. The approach relies on a style extractor model, which creates emotional-to-neutral transformations. The transformed facial representations are spatially contrasted with the original faces, highlighting the emotional information conveyed in the video. The results demonstrate that adding the proposed style extractor model to a dynamic FER system improves the performance by 7% (absolute) compared to a similar model with no style extractor. This novel feature representation also improves the generaliza- tion of the model. 
    more » « less
  5. Facial micro-expressions (MEs) refer to subtle, transient, and involuntary muscle movements expressing a per-son’s true feelings. This paper presents a novel two-stream relational edge-node graph attention network-based approach to classify MEs in a video by selecting the high-intensity frames and edge-node features that can provide valuable information about the relationship between nodes and structural information in a graph structure. The pa-per examines the impact of different edge-node features and their relationships on the graphs. The first step involves extracting high-intensity-emotion frames from the video using optical flow. Second, node feature embeddings are calculated using the node location coordinate features and the patch size information of the optical flow across each node location. Additionally, we obtain the global and local structural similarity score using the jaccard’s similarity score and radial basis function as the edge features. Third, a self-attention graph pooling layer helps to remove the nodes with lower attention scores based on the top-k selection. As the final step, the network employs a two-stream edge-node graph attention network that focuses on finding correlations among the edge and node features, such as landmark coordinates, optical flow, and global and local edge features. A three-frame graph structure is designed to obtain spatio-temporal information. For 3 and 5 expression classes, the results are compared for SMIC and CASME II databases. 
    more » « less