skip to main content


Title: The Green Bank Northern Celestial Cap Pulsar Survey. VI. Discovery and Timing of PSR J1759+5036: A Double Neutron Star Binary Pulsar
Abstract The Green Bank North Celestial Cap survey is a 350 MHz all-sky survey for pulsars and fast radio transients using the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. To date, the survey has discovered over 190 pulsars, including 33 millisecond pulsars and 24 rotating radio transients. Several exotic pulsars have been discovered in the survey, including PSR J1759+5036, a binary pulsar with a 176 ms spin period in an orbit with a period of 2.04 days, an eccentricity of 0.3, and a projected semi-major axis of 6.8 light seconds. Using seven years of timing data, we are able to measure one post–Keplerian parameter, advance of periastron, which has allowed us to constrain the total system mass to 2.62 ± 0.03 M ⊙ . This constraint, along with the spin period and orbital parameters, suggests that this is a double neutron star system, although we cannot entirely rule out a pulsar-white dwarf binary. This pulsar is only detectable in roughly 45% of observations, most likely due to scintillation. However, additional observations are required to determine whether there may be other contributing effects.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
2020265
NSF-PAR ID:
10321812
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more » ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Date Published:
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal
Volume:
922
Issue:
1
ISSN:
0004-637X
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    We present timing solutions for 21 pulsars discovered in 350 MHz surveys using the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). All were discovered in the Green Bank North Celestial Cap pulsar survey, with the exception of PSR J0957−0619, which was found in the GBT 350 MHz Drift-scan pulsar survey. The majority of our timing observations were made with the GBT at 820 MHz. With a spin period of 37 ms and a 528 days orbit, PSR J0032+6946 joins a small group of five other mildly recycled wide binary pulsars, for which the duration of recycling through accretion is limited by the length of the companion’s giant phase. PSRs J0141+6303 and J1327+3423 are new disrupted recycled pulsars. We incorporate Arecibo observations from the NANOGrav pulsar timing array into our analysis of the latter. We also observed PSR J1327+3423 with the Long Wavelength Array, and our data suggest a frequency-dependent dispersion measure. PSR J0957−0619 was discovered as a rotating radio transient, but is a nulling pulsar at 820 MHz. PSR J1239+3239 is a new millisecond pulsar (MSP) in a 4 days orbit with a low-mass companion. Four of our pulsars already have published timing solutions, which we update in this work: the recycled wide binary PSR J0214+5222, the noneclipsing black widow PSR J0636+5128, the disrupted recycled pulsar J1434+7257, and the eclipsing binary MSP J1816+4510, which is in an 8.7 hr orbit with a redback-mass companion.

     
    more » « less
  2. Abstract We present new discoveries and results from long-term timing of 72 pulsars discovered in the Pulsar Arecibo L -band Feed Array (PALFA) survey, including precise determination of astrometric and spin parameters, and flux density and scatter broadening measurements at 1.4 GHz. Notable discoveries include two young pulsars (characteristic ages ∼30 kyr) with no apparent supernova remnant associations, three mode-changing, 12 nulling and two intermittent pulsars. We detected eight glitches in five pulsars. Among them is PSR J1939+2609, an apparently old pulsar (characteristic age ∼1 Gy), and PSR J1954+2529, which likely belongs to a newly emerging class of binary pulsars. The latter is the only pulsar among the 72 that is clearly not isolated: a nonrecycled neutron star with a 931 ms spin period in an eccentric ( e = 0.114) wide ( P b = 82.7 days) orbit with a companion of undetermined nature having a minimum mass of ∼0.6 M ⊙ . Since operations at Arecibo ceased in 2020 August, we give a final tally of PALFA sky coverage, and compare its 207 pulsar discoveries to the known population. On average, they are 50% more distant than other Galactic plane radio pulsars; PALFA millisecond pulsars (MSPs) have twice the dispersion measure per unit spin period than the known population of MSP in the plane. The four intermittent pulsars discovered by PALFA more than double the population of such objects, which should help to improve our understanding of pulsar magnetosphere physics. The statistics for these, rotating radio transients, and nulling pulsars suggest that there are many more of these objects in the Galaxy than was previously thought. 
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    Pulsar timing is a powerful tool that, by accounting for every rotation of a pulsar, precisely measures the spin frequency, spin frequency derivatives, astrometric position, binary parameters when applicable, properties of the interstellar medium, and potentially general relativistic effects. Typically, this process demands fairly stringent scheduling requirements for monitoring observations as well as deep domain knowledge to “phase connect” the timing data. We present an algorithm that automates the pulsar-timing process for binary pulsars, whose timing solutions have an additional level of complexity, although the algorithm works for isolated pulsars as well. Using the statisticalF-test and the quadratic dependence of the reducedχ2near a minimum, the global rotation count of a pulsar can be determined efficiently and systematically. We have used our algorithm to establish timing solutions for two newly discovered binary pulsars, PSRs J1748−2446aq and J1748−2446at, in the globular cluster Terzan 5, using ∼70 Green Bank Telescope observations from the last 13 yr.

     
    more » « less
  4. ABSTRACT

    More than 100 millisecond pulsars (MSPs) have been discovered in radio observations of gamma-ray sources detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT), but hundreds of pulsar-like sources remain unidentified. Here, we present the first results from the targeted survey of Fermi-LAT sources being performed by the Transients and Pulsars with MeerKAT (TRAPUM) Large Survey Project. We observed 79 sources identified as possible gamma-ray pulsar candidates by a Random Forest classification of unassociated sources from the 4FGL catalogue. Each source was observed for 10 min on two separate epochs using MeerKAT’s L-band receiver (856–1712 MHz), with typical pulsed flux density sensitivities of $\sim 100\, \mu$Jy. Nine new MSPs were discovered, eight of which are in binary systems, including two eclipsing redbacks and one system, PSR J1526−2744, that appears to have a white dwarf companion in an unusually compact 5 h orbit. We obtained phase-connected timing solutions for two of these MSPs, enabling the detection of gamma-ray pulsations in the Fermi-LAT data. A follow-up search for continuous gravitational waves from PSR J1526−2744 in Advanced LIGO data using the resulting Fermi-LAT timing ephemeris yielded no detection, but sets an upper limit on the neutron star ellipticity of 2.45 × 10−8. We also detected X-ray emission from the redback PSR J1803−6707 in data from the first eROSITA all-sky survey, likely due to emission from an intrabinary shock.

     
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    We present timing solutions for 12 pulsars discovered in the Green Bank North Celestial Cap 350 MHz pulsar survey, including six millisecond pulsars (MSPs), a double neutron star (DNS) system, and a pulsar orbiting a massive white dwarf companion. Timing solutions presented here include 350 and 820 MHz Green Bank Telescope data from initial confirmation and follow-up, as well as a dedicated timing campaign spanning 1 ryr PSR J1122−3546 is an isolated MSP, PSRs J1221−0633 and J1317−0157 are MSPs in black widow systems and regularly exhibit eclipses, and PSRs J2022+2534 and J2039−3616 are MSPs that can be timed with high precision and have been included in pulsar timing array experiments seeking to detect low-frequency gravitational waves. PSRs J1221−0633 and J2039−3616 have Fermi Large Area Telescope gamma-ray counterparts and also exhibit significant gamma-ray pulsations. We measure proper motions for three of the MSPs in this sample and estimate their space velocities, which are typical compared to those of other MSPs. We have detected the advance of periastron for PSR J1018−1523 and therefore measure the total mass of the DNS system,mtot= 2.3 ± 0.3M. Long-term pulsar timing with data spanning more than 1 yr is critical for classifying recycled pulsars, carrying out detailed astrometry studies, and shedding light on the wealth of information in these systems post-discovery.

     
    more » « less