skip to main content

Title: Strangeness in astrophysics: Theoretical developments
In this conference proceeding, we review important theoretical developments related to the production of strangeness in astrophysics. This includes its effects in supernova explosions, neutron stars, and compact-star mergers. We also discuss in detail how the presence of net strangeness affects the deconfinement to quark matter, expected to take place at large densities and/or temperatures. We conclude that a complete description of dense matter containing hyperons and strange quarks is fundamental for the understanding of modern high-energy astrophysics.
David, G.; Garg, P.; Kalweit, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Ullrich, T.; Xu, Z.; Yoo, I.-K.
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
EPJ Web of Conferences
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. In this work, we discuss the deconfinement phase transition to quark matter in hot/dense matter. We examine the effect that different charge fractions, isospin fractions, net strangeness, and chemical equilibrium with respect to leptons have on the position of the coexistence line between different phases. In particular, we investigate how different sets of conditions that describe matter in neutron stars and their mergers, or matter created in heavy-ion collisions affect the position of the critical end point, namely where the first-order phase transition becomes a crossover. We also present an introduction to the topic of critical points, including a review of recent advances concerning QCD critical points.
  2. We review the equation of state of QCD matter at finite densities. We discuss the construction of the equation of state with net baryon number, electric charge, and strangeness using the results of lattice QCD simulations and hadron resonance gas models. Its application to the hydrodynamic analyses of relativistic nuclear collisions suggests that the interplay of multiple conserved charges is important in the quantitative understanding of the dense nuclear matter created at lower beam energies. Several different models of the QCD equation of state are discussed for comparison.
  3. According to the CPT theorem, which states that the combined operation of charge conjugation, parity transformation and time reversal must be conserved, particles and their antiparticles should have the same mass and lifetime but opposite charge and magnetic moment. Here, we test CPT symmetry in a nucleus containing a strange quark, more specifically in the hypertriton. This hypernucleus is the lightest one yet discovered and consists of a proton, a neutron and a Λ hyperon. With data recorded by the STAR detector1–3 at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, we measure the Λ hyperon binding energy BΛ for the hypertriton, and find that it differs from the widely used value4 and from predictions5–8, where the hypertriton is treated as a weakly bound system. Our results place stringent constraints on the hyperon–nucleon interaction9,10 and have implications for understanding neutron star interiors, where strange matter may be present11. A precise comparison of the masses of the hypertriton and the antihypertriton allows us to test CPT symmetry in a nucleus with strangeness, and we observe no deviation from the expected exact symmetry.
  4. This whitepaper focuses on the astrophysical systematics which are encountered in dark matter searches. Oftentimes in indirect and also in direct dark matter searches, astrophysical systematics are a major limiting factor to sensitivity to dark matter. Just as there are many forms of dark matter searches, there are many forms of backgrounds. We attempt to cover the major systematics arising in dark matter searches using photons -- radio and gamma rays -- to cosmic rays, neutrinos and gravitational waves. Examples include astrophysical sources of cosmic messengers and their interactions which can mimic dark matter signatures. In turn, these depend on commensurate studies in understanding the cosmic environment -- gas distributions, magnetic field configurations -- as well as relevant nuclear astrophysics. We also cover the astrophysics governing celestial bodies and galaxies used to probe dark matter, from black holes to dwarf galaxies. Finally, we cover astrophysical backgrounds related to probing the dark matter distribution and kinematics, which impact a wide range of dark matter studies. In the future, the rise of multi-messenger astronomy, and novel analysis methods to exploit it for dark matter, will offer various strategic ways to continue to enhance our understanding of astrophysical backgrounds to deliver improved sensitivitymore »to dark matter.« less
  5. Abstract Galaxies can be characterized by many internal properties such as stellar mass, gas metallicity, and star formation rate. We quantify the amount of cosmological and astrophysical information that the internal properties of individual galaxies and their host dark matter halos contain. We train neural networks using hundreds of thousands of galaxies from 2000 state-of-the-art hydrodynamic simulations with different cosmologies and astrophysical models of the CAMELS project to perform likelihood-free inference on the value of the cosmological and astrophysical parameters. We find that knowing the internal properties of a single galaxy allows our models to infer the value of Ω m , at fixed Ω b , with a ∼10% precision, while no constraint can be placed on σ 8 . Our results hold for any type of galaxy, central or satellite, massive or dwarf, at all considered redshifts, z ≤ 3, and they incorporate uncertainties in astrophysics as modeled in CAMELS. However, our models are not robust to changes in subgrid physics due to the large intrinsic differences the two considered models imprint on galaxy properties. We find that the stellar mass, stellar metallicity, and maximum circular velocity are among the most important galaxy properties to determine the valuemore »of Ω m . We believe that our results can be explained by considering that changes in the value of Ω m , or potentially Ω b /Ω m , affect the dark matter content of galaxies, which leaves a signature in galaxy properties distinct from the one induced by galactic processes. Our results suggest that the low-dimensional manifold hosting galaxy properties provides a tight direct link between cosmology and astrophysics.« less