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Title: Dirac Fermion Cloning, Moiré Flat Bands and Magic Lattice Constants in Epitaxial Monolayer Graphene
Tuning interactions between Dirac states in graphene has attracted enormous interest because it can modify the electronic spectrum of the two-dimensional material, enhance electron correlations, and give rise to novel condensed-matter phases such as superconductors, Mott insulators, Wigner crystals and quantum anomalous Hall insulators. Previous works predominantly focus on the flat band dispersion of coupled Dirac states from different twisted graphene layers. In this work, we propose a new route to realizing flat band physics in monolayer graphene under a periodic modulation from substrates. We take graphene/SiC heterostructure as a prototypical example and demonstrate experimentally that the substrate modulation leads to Dirac fermion cloning and consequently, the proximity of the two Dirac cones of monolayer graphene in momentum space. Our theoretical modeling captures the cloning mechanism of Dirac states and indicates that Moiré flat bands can emerge at certain magic lattice constants of the substrate, specifically when the period of modulation becomes nearly commensurate with the (√3×√3)𝑅30∘ supercell of graphene. The results show that epitaxial single monolayer graphene on suitable substrates is a promising platform for exploring exotic many-body quantum phases arising from interactions between Dirac electrons.
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Advanced Materials
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National Science Foundation
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