skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on February 1, 2023

Title: Fundamental stellar parameters of benchmark stars from CHARA interferometry: III. Giant and subgiant stars
Context. Large spectroscopic surveys of the Milky Way must be calibrated against a sample of benchmark stars to ensure the reliable determination of atmospheric parameters. Aims. Here, we present new fundamental stellar parameters of seven giant and subgiant stars that will serve as benchmark stars for large surveys. The aim is to reach a precision of 1% in the effective temperature. This precision is essential for accurate determinations of the full set of fundamental parameters and abundances for stars observed by the stellar surveys. Methods. We observed HD 121370 ( η Boo), HD 161797 ( μ Her), HD 175955, HD 182736, HD 185351, HD 188512 ( β Aql), and HD 189349, using the high angular resolution optical interferometric instrument PAVO at the CHARA Array. The limb-darkening corrections were determined from 3D model atmospheres based on the STAGGER grid. The T eff were determined directly from the Stefan-Boltzmann relation, with an iterative procedure to interpolate over tables of bolometric corrections. We estimated surface gravities from comparisons to Dartmouth stellar evolution model tracks. The spectroscopic observations were collected from the ELODIE and FIES spectrographs. We estimated metallicities ([Fe/H]) from a 1D non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) abundance analysis of unblended lines of neutral more » and singly ionised iron. Results. For six of the seven stars, we measured the value of T eff to better than 1% accuracy. For one star, HD 189349, the uncertainty on T eff is 2%, due to an uncertain bolometric flux. We do not recommend this star as a benchmark until this measurement can be improved. Median uncertainties for all stars in log  g and [Fe/H] are 0.034 dex and 0.07 dex, respectively. Conclusions. This study presents updated fundamental stellar parameters of seven giant and subgiant stars that can be used as a new set of benchmarks. All the fundamental stellar parameters were established on the basis of consistent combinations of interferometric observations, 3D limb-darkening modelling, and spectroscopic analysis. This paper in this series follows our previous papers featuring dwarf stars and stars in the metal-poor range. « less
Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
2034336 1636624
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10325333
Journal Name:
Astronomy & Astrophysics
Volume:
658
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
A48
ISSN:
0004-6361
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Context. Stellar models applied to large stellar surveys of the Milky Way need to be properly tested against a sample of stars with highly reliable fundamental stellar parameters. We have established a programme aiming to deliver such a sample of stars. Aims. Here we present new fundamental stellar parameters of nine dwarf stars that will be used as benchmark stars for large stellar surveys. One of these stars is the solar-twin 18 Sco, which is also one of the Gaia -ESO benchmarks. The goal is to reach a precision of 1% in effective temperature ( T eff ). This precisionmore »is important for accurate determinations of the full set of fundamental parameters and abundances of stars observed by the surveys. Methods. We observed HD 131156 ( ξ Boo), HD 146233 (18 Sco), HD 152391, HD 173701, HD 185395 ( θ Cyg), HD 186408 (16 Cyg A), HD 186427 (16 Cyg B), HD 190360, and HD 207978 (15 Peg) using the high angular resolution optical interferometric instrument PAVO at the CHARA Array. We derived limb-darkening corrections from 3D model atmospheres and determined T eff directly from the Stefan–Boltzmann relation, with an iterative procedure to interpolate over tables of bolometric corrections. Surface gravities were estimated from comparisons to Dartmouth stellar evolution model tracks. We collected spectroscopic observations from the ELODIE spectrograph and estimated metallicities ([Fe/H]) from a 1D non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) abundance analysis of unblended lines of neutral and singly ionised iron. Results. For eight of the nine stars we measure the T eff ⪅ 1%, and for one star better than 2%. We determined the median uncertainties in log  g and [Fe/H] as 0.015 dex and 0.05 dex, respectively. Conclusions. This study presents updated fundamental stellar parameters of nine dwarf stars that can be used as a new set of benchmarks. All the fundamental stellar parameters were based on consistently combining interferometric observations, 3D limb-darkening modelling, and spectroscopic analysis. The next paper in this series will extend our sample to giants in the metal-rich range.« less
  2. Context. Benchmark stars are crucial as validating standards for current as well as future large stellar surveys of the Milky Way. However, the number of suitable metal-poor benchmark stars is currently limited, owing to the difficulty in determining reliable effective temperatures ( T eff ) in this regime. Aims. We aim to construct a new set of metal-poor benchmark stars based on reliable interferometric effective temperature determinations and a homogeneous analysis. The aim is to reach a precision of 1% in T eff , as is crucial for sufficiently accurate determinations of the full set of fundamental parameters and abundancesmore »for the survey sources. Methods. We observed ten late-type metal-poor dwarfs and giants: HD 2665, HD 6755, HD 6833, HD 103095, HD 122563, HD 127243, HD 140283, HD 175305, HD 221170, and HD 224930. Only three of them (HD 103095, HD 122563, and HD 140283) have previously been used as benchmark stars. For the observations, we used the high-angular-resolution optical interferometric instrument PAVO at the CHARA array. We modelled angular diameters using 3D limb-darkening models and determined effective temperatures directly from the Stefan-Boltzmann relation, with an iterative procedure to interpolate over tables of bolometric corrections. Surface gravities (log( g )) were estimated from comparisons to Dartmouth stellar evolution model tracks. We collected spectroscopic observations from the ELODIE and FIES spectrographs and estimated metallicities ([Fe/H]) from a 1D non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) abundance analysis of unblended lines of neutral and singly ionised iron. Results. We inferred T eff to better than 1% for five of the stars (HD 103095, HD 122563, HD 127243, HD 140283, and HD 224930). The effective temperatures of the other five stars are reliable to between 2 and 3%; the higher uncertainty on the T eff for those stars is mainly due to their having a larger uncertainty in the bolometric fluxes. We also determined log( g ) and [Fe/H] with median uncertainties of 0.03 dex and 0.09 dex, respectively. Conclusions. This study presents reliable and homogeneous fundamental stellar parameters for ten metal-poor stars that can be adopted as a new set of benchmarks. The parameters are based on our consistent approach of combining interferometric observations, 3D limb-darkening-modelling and spectroscopic observations. The next paper in this series will extend this approach to dwarfs and giants in the metal-rich regime.« less
  3. Context. Older models of Galactic chemical evolution (GCE) predict [K/Fe] ratios as much as 1 dex lower than those inferred from stellar observations. Abundances of potassium are mainly based on analyses of the 7698 Å resonance line, and the discrepancy between GCE models and observations is in part caused by the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) in spectroscopic analyses. Aims. We study the statistical equilibrium of K  I , focusing on the non-LTE effects on the 7698 Å line. We aim to determine how non-LTE abundances of potassium can improve the analysis of its chemical evolution, and help to constrain themore »yields of GCE models. Methods. We construct a new model K  I atom that employs the most up-to-date atomic data. In particular, we calculate and present inelastic e+K collisional excitation cross-sections from the convergent close-coupling (CCC) and the B -Spline R -matrix (BSR) methods, and H+K collisions from the two-electron model (LCAO). We constructed a fine, extended grid of non-LTE abundance corrections based on 1D MARCS models that span 4000 < T eff ∕K < 8000, 0.50 < log g < 5.00, − 5.00 < [Fe/H] < + 0.50, and applied the corrections to potassium abundances extracted from the literature. Results. In concordance with previous studies, we find severe non-LTE effects in the 7698 Å line. The line is stronger in non-LTE and the abundance corrections can reach approximately − 0.7 dex for solar-metallicity stars such as Procyon. We determine potassium abundances in six benchmark stars, and obtain consistent results from different optical lines. We explore the effects of atmospheric inhomogeneity by computing for the first time a full 3D non-LTE stellar spectrum of K  I lines for a test star. We find that 3D modeling is necessary to predict a correct shape of the resonance 7698 Å line, but the line strength is similar to that found in 1D non-LTE. Conclusions. Our non-LTE abundance corrections reduce the scatter and change the cosmic trends of literature potassium abundances. In the regime [Fe/H] ≲−1.0 the non-LTE abundances show a good agreement with the GCE model with yields from rotating massive stars. The reduced scatter of the non-LTE corrected abundances of a sample of solar twins shows that line-by-line differential analysis techniques cannot fully compensate for systematic LTE modelling errors; the scatter introduced by such errors introduces a spurious dispersion to K evolution.« less
  4. The Galactic center region, including the nuclear disk, has until recently been largely avoided in chemical census studies because of extreme extinction and stellar crowding. Large, near-IR spectroscopic surveys, such as the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), allow the measurement of metallicities in the inner region of our Galaxy. Making use of the latest APOGEE data release (DR16), we are able for the first time to study cool Asymptotic Giant branch (AGB) stars and supergiants in this region. The stellar parameters of five known AGB stars and one supergiant star (VR 5-7) show that their location is wellmore »above the tip of the red giant branch. We studied metallicities of 157 M giants situated within 150 pc of the Galactic center from observations obtained by the APOGEE survey with reliable stellar parameters from the APOGEE pipeline making use of the cool star grid down to 3200 K. Distances, interstellar extinction values, and radial velocities were checked to confirm that these stars are indeed situated in the Galactic center region. We detect a clear bimodal structure in the metallicity distribution function, with a dominant metal-rich peak of [Fe/H] ∼ +0.3 dex and a metal-poor peak around {Fe/H] = −0.5 dex, which is 0.2 dex poorer than Baade’s Window. The α -elements Mg, Si, Ca, and O show a similar trend to the Galactic bulge. The metal-poor component is enhanced in the α -elements, suggesting that this population could be associated with the classical bulge and a fast formation scenario. We find a clear signature of a rotating nuclear stellar disk and a significant fraction of high-velocity stars with v gal  >  300 km s −1 ; the metal-rich stars show a much higher rotation velocity (∼200 km s −1 ) with respect to the metal-poor stars (∼140 km s −1 ). The chemical abundances as well as the metallicity distribution function suggest that the nuclear stellar disk and the nuclear star cluster show distinct chemical signatures and might be formed differently.« less
  5. ABSTRACT The determination of fundamental parameters of stars is one of the main tasks of astrophysics. For magnetic chemically peculiar stars, this problem is complicated by the anomalous chemical composition of their atmospheres, which requires special analysis methods. We present the results of the effective temperature, surface gravity, abundance, and radius determinations for three CP stars HD 188041, HD 111133, and HD 204411. Our analysis is based on a self-consistent model fitting of high-resolution spectra and spectrophotometric observations over a wide wavelength range, taking into account the anomalous chemical composition of atmospheres and the inhomogeneous vertical distribution for three chemicalmore »elements: Ca, Cr, and Fe. For two stars, HD 188041 and HD 204411, we also performed interferometric observations that provided us with the direct estimates of stellar radii. Comparison of the radii determined from the analysis of spectroscopic/spectrophotometric observations with direct measurements of the radii by interferometry methods for seven CP stars shows that the radii agree within the limits of measurement errors, which proves indirect spectroscopic analysis capable of proving reliable determinations of the fundamental parameters of fainter Ap stars that are not possible to study with modern interferometric facilities.« less