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Title: Quantum algorithms and approximating polynomials for composed functions with shared inputs
We give new quantum algorithms for evaluating composed functions whose inputs may be shared between bottom-level gates. Let f be an m -bit Boolean function and consider an n -bit function F obtained by applying f to conjunctions of possibly overlapping subsets of n variables. If f has quantum query complexity Q ( f ) , we give an algorithm for evaluating F using O ~ ( Q ( f ) ⋅ n ) quantum queries. This improves on the bound of O ( Q ( f ) ⋅ n ) that follows by treating each conjunction independently, and our bound is tight for worst-case choices of f . Using completely different techniques, we prove a similar tight composition theorem for the approximate degree of f .By recursively applying our composition theorems, we obtain a nearly optimal O ~ ( n 1 − 2 − d ) upper bound on the quantum query complexity and approximate degree of linear-size depth- d AC 0 circuits. As a consequence, such circuits can be PAC learned in subexponential time, even in the challenging agnostic setting. Prior to our work, a subexponential-time algorithm was not known even for linear-size depth-3 AC 0 circuits.As an additional consequence, we show that AC 0 ∘ ⊕ circuits of depth d + 1 require size Ω ~ ( n 1 / ( 1 − 2 − d ) ) ≥ ω ( n 1 + 2 − d ) to compute the Inner Product function even on average. The previous best size lower bound was Ω ( n 1 + 4 − ( d + 1 ) ) and only held in the worst case (Cheraghchi et al., JCSS 2018).  more » « less
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