Runaway electron acceleration is the keystone process responsible for the production of energetic radiation by lightning and thunderstorms. In the laboratory, it remains undetermined if runaway electrons are merely a consequence of high electric fields produced at the ionization fronts of electrical discharges, or if they impact the discharge formation and propagation. In this work, we simulate photon pileup in a detector next to a spark gap. We compare laboratory measurements to ensembles of monoenergetic electron beam simulations performed with Geant4 (using the Monte Carlo method). First, we describe the x-ray emission properties of monoenergetic beams with initial energies in the 20 to 75 keV range. Second, we introduce a series of techniques to combine monoenergetic beams to produce general-shape electron energy spectra. Third, we proceed to attempt to fit the experimental data collected in the laboratory, and to discuss the ambiguities created by photon pileup and how it constrains the amount of information that can be inferred from the measurements. We show that pileup ambiguities arise from the fact that every single monoenergetic electron beam produces photon deposited energy spectra of similar qualitative shape and that increasing the electron count in any beam has the same qualitative effect of shiftingmore »
This content will become publicly available on April 1, 2023
Very-High Dynamic Range, 10,000 Frames/Second Pixel Array Detector for Electron Microscopy
Precision and accuracy of quantitative scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) methods such as ptychography, and the mapping of electric, magnetic, and strain fields depend on the dose. Reasonable acquisition time requires high beam current and the ability to quantitatively detect both large and minute changes in signal. A new hybrid pixel array detector (PAD), the second-generation Electron Microscope Pixel Array Detector (EMPAD-G2), addresses this challenge by advancing the technology of a previous generation PAD, the EMPAD. The EMPAD-G2 images continuously at a frame-rates up to 10 kHz with a dynamic range that spans from low-noise detection of single electrons to electron beam currents exceeding 180 pA per pixel, even at electron energies of 300 keV. The EMPAD-G2 enables rapid collection of high-quality STEM data that simultaneously contain full diffraction information from unsaturated bright-field disks to usable Kikuchi bands and higher-order Laue zones. Test results from 80 to 300 keV are presented, as are first experimental results demonstrating ptychographic reconstructions, strain and polarization maps. We introduce a new information metric, the maximum usable imaging speed (MUIS), to identify when a detector becomes electron-starved, saturated or its pixel count is mismatched with the beam current.
- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Microscopy and Microanalysis
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 425 to 440
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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