skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on May 1, 2023

Title: Kinetic modeling of neutral transport for a continuum gyrokinetic code
We present the first-of-its-kind coupling of a continuum full- f gyrokinetic turbulence model with a 6D continuum model for kinetic neutrals, carried out using the Gkeyll code. Our objective is to improve the first-principle understanding of the role of neutrals in plasma fueling, detachment, and their interaction with edge plasma profiles and turbulence statistics. Our model includes only atomic hydrogen and incorporates electron-impact ionization, charge exchange, and wall recycling. These features have been successfully verified with analytical predictions and benchmarked with the DEGAS2 Monte Carlo neutral code. We carry out simulations for a scrape-off layer (SOL) with simplified geometry and National Spherical Torus Experiment parameters. We compare these results to a baseline simulation without neutrals and find that neutral interactions reduce the normalized density fluctuation levels and associated skewness and kurtosis, while increasing auto-correlation times. A flatter density profile is also observed, similar to the SOL density shoulder formation in experimental scenarios with high fueling.
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
2019828
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10332448
Journal Name:
Physics of Plasmas
Volume:
29
Issue:
5
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
052501
ISSN:
1070-664X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. In this paper we present an experimental study of edge turbulence in the Large Plasma Device at UCLA. We utilize a scan of discharge power and prefill pressure (neutral density) to show experimentally that turbulent density fluctuations decrease with decreasing density gradient, as predicted for resistive drift-wave turbulence (RDWT). As expected for RDWT, we observe that the cross-phase between the density and potential fluctuations is close to 0. Moreover, the addition of an electron temperature gradient leads to a reduction in the amplitude of the density fluctuations, as expected for RDWT. However, counter to theoretical expectations, we find that the potential fluctuations do not follow the same trends as the density fluctuations for changes either in density gradients or the addition of a temperature gradient. The disconnect between the density and potential fluctuations is connected to changes in the parallel flows as a result of differences in the prefill pressure, i.e. neutral density. Further analysis of the density and potential fluctuation spectra show that the electron temperature gradient reduces the low frequency fluctuations up to $10 \,{\rm kHz}$ and the introduction of a temperature gradient leads to an unexpected ${\sim }{\rm \pi}$ shift of the density–potential cross-phase at ${\sim }10\,{\rmmore »kHz}$ , while maintaining the typical resistive drift-wave cross-phase at lower frequencies. These experiments partly confirm existing knowledge on resistive drift-wave turbulence, but also introduce new observations that indicate a need for dedicated nonlinear three-dimensional turbulence simulations that include neutrals.« less
  2. Abstract

    The matter in an accretion disk must lose angular momentum when moving radially inwards but how this works has long been a mystery. By calculating the trajectories of individual colliding neutrals, ions, and electrons in a weakly ionized 2D plasma containing gravitational and magnetic fields, we numerically simulate accretion disk dynamics at the particle level. As predicted by Lagrangian mechanics, the fundamental conserved global quantity is the total canonical angular momentum, not the ordinary angular momentum. When the Kepler angular velocity and the magnetic field have opposite polarity, collisions between neutrals and charged particles cause: (i) ions to move radially inwards, (ii) electrons to move radially outwards, (iii) neutrals to lose ordinary angular momentum, and (iv) charged particles to gain canonical angular momentum. Neutrals thus spiral inward due to their decrease of ordinary angular momentum while the accumulation of ions at small radius and accumulation of electrons at large radius produces a radially outward electric field. In 3D, this radial electric field would drive an out-of-plane poloidal current that produces the magnetic forces that drive bidirectional astrophysical jets. Because this neutral angular momentum loss depends only on neutrals colliding with charged particles, it should be ubiquitous. Quantitative scaling ofmore »the model using plausible disk density, temperature, and magnetic field strength gives an accretion rate of 3 × 10−8solar mass per year, which is in good agreement with observed accretion rates.

    « less
  3. ABSTRACT In the cold neutral medium, high out-of-equilibrium temperatures are created by intermittent dissipation processes, including shocks, viscous heating, and ambipolar diffusion. The high-temperature excursions are thought to explain the enhanced abundance of CH+ observed along diffuse molecular sightlines. Intermittent high temperatures should also have an impact on H2 line luminosities. We carry out simulations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in molecular clouds including heating and cooling, and post-process them to study H2 line emission and hot-gas chemistry, particularly the formation of CH+. We explore multiple magnetic field strengths and equations of state. We use a new H2 cooling function for $n_{\text{H}}\le 10^5\, {\text{cm}}^{-3}$, $T\le 5000\, {\text{K}}$, and variable H2 fraction. We make two important simplifying assumptions: (i) the H2/H fraction is fixed everywhere and (ii) we exclude from our analysis regions where the ion–neutral drift velocity is calculated to be greater than 5 km s−1. Our models produce H2 emission lines in accord with many observations, although extra excitation mechanisms are required in some clouds. For realistic root-mean-square (rms) magnetic field strengths (≈10 μG) and velocity dispersions, we reproduce observed CH+ abundances. These findings contrast with those of Valdivia et al. (2017) Comparison of predicted dust polarization with observations by Planck suggests thatmore »the mean field is ≳5 µG, so that the turbulence is sub-Alfvénic. We recommend future work treating ions and neutrals as separate fluids to more accurately capture the effects of ambipolar diffusion on CH+ abundance.« less
  4. Abstract

    We explore the effect of dust on the growth of seed black holes (BHs) in the early universe. Previous 1D radiation-hydrodynamic (RHD) simulations show that increased radiation pressure on dust further suppresses the accretion rate than the case for the chemically pristine gas. Using the Enzo+Moray code, we perform a suite of 3D RHD simulations of accreting BHs in a dusty interstellar medium (ISM). We use the modified Grackle cooling library to consider dust physics in its nonequilibrium chemistry. The BH goes through an early evolutionary phase, where ionizing BH radiation creates an oscillating Hiiregion as it cycles between accretion and feedback. As the simulations proceed, dense cold gas accumulates outside the ionized region where inflow from the neutral medium meets the outflow driven by radiation pressure. In the late phase, high-density gas streams develop and break the quasi-spherical symmetry of the ionized region, rapidly boosting the accretion rate. The late phase is characterized by the coexistence of strong ionized outflows and fueling high-density gas inflows. The mean accretion rate increases with metallicity reaching a peak atZ∼ 0.01–0.1Z, one order of magnitude higher than the one for pristine gas. However, as the metallicity approaches the solar abundance, the meanmore »accretion rate drops as the radiation pressure becomes strong enough to drive out the high-density gas. Our results indicate that a dusty metal-poor ISM can accelerate the growth rate of BHs in the early universe, but can also stun its growth as the ISM is further enriched toward the solar abundance.

    « less
  5. Abstract. In this paper we present an overview of measurements conducted during the WADIS-2 rocket campaign. We investigate the effect of small-scale processes like gravity waves and turbulence on the distribution of atomic oxygen and other species in the mesosphere–lower thermosphere (MLT) region. Our analysis suggests that density fluctuations of atomic oxygen are coupled to fluctuations of other constituents, i.e., plasma and neutrals. Our measurements show that all measured quantities, including winds, densities, and temperatures, reveal signatures of both waves and turbulence. We show observations of gravity wave saturation and breakdown together with simultaneous measurements of generated turbulence. Atomic oxygen inside turbulence layers shows two different spectral behaviors, which might imply a change in its diffusion properties.