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Title: Performing Bayesian Analyses With AZURE2 Using BRICK: An Application to the 7Be System
Phenomenological R -matrix has been a standard framework for the evaluation of resolved resonance cross section data in nuclear physics for many years. It is a powerful method for comparing different types of experimental nuclear data and combining the results of many different experimental measurements in order to gain a better estimation of the true underlying cross sections. Yet a practical challenge has always been the estimation of the uncertainty on both the cross sections at the energies of interest and the fit parameters, which can take the form of standard level parameters. Frequentist ( χ 2 -based) estimation has been the norm. In this work, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampler, emcee , has been implemented for the R -matrix code AZURE2 , creating the Bayesian R -matrix Inference Code Kit ( BRICK ). Bayesian uncertainty estimation has then been carried out for a simultaneous R -matrix fit of the 3 He ( α , γ ) 7 Be and 3 He ( α , α ) 3 He reactions in order to gain further insight into the fitting of capture and scattering data. Both data sets constrain the values of the bound state α -particle asymptotic normalization coefficients more » in 7 Be. The analysis highlights the need for low-energy scattering data with well-documented uncertainty information and shows how misleading results can be obtained in its absence. « less
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Award ID(s):
2004601 1927130 2011890
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Frontiers in Physics
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. Abstract

    The Coulomb-free1S0proton-proton (p-p) scattering length relies heavily on numerous and distinct theoretical techniques to remove the Coulomb contribution. Here, it has been determined from the half-off-the-energy-shellp-pscattering cross section measured at center-of-mass energies below 1 MeV using the quasi-freep + d → p + p + nreaction. A Bayesian data-fitting approach using the expression of the s-wave nucleon-nucleon scattering cross section returned ap-pscattering length$${a}_{pp}=-18.1{7}_{-0.58}^{+0.52}{| }_{stat}\pm 0.0{1}_{syst}$$app=18.170.58+0.52stat±0.01systfm and effective ranger0 = 2.80 ± 0.05stat ± 0.001systfm. A model based on universality concepts has been developed to interpret this result. It accounts for the short-range interaction as a whole, nuclear and residual electromagnetic, according to what the s-wave phase-shiftδdoes in the description of low-energy nucleon-nucleon scattering data. We conclude that our parameters are representative of the short-range physics and propose to assess the charge symmetry breaking of the short-range interaction instead of just the nuclear interaction. This is consistent with the current understanding that the charge dependence of nuclear forces is due to different masses of up-down quarks and their electromagnetic interactions. This achievement suggests that these properties have a lesser than expected impact in the context of the charge symmetry breaking.

  2. Resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) have come full-circle in the past 10 years after their demonstration in the early 1990s as the fastest room-temperature semiconductor oscillator, displaying experimental results up to 712 GHz and fmax values exceeding 1.0 THz [1]. Now the RTD is once again the preeminent electronic oscillator above 1.0 THz and is being implemented as a coherent source [2] and a self-oscillating mixer [3], amongst other applications. This paper concerns RTD electroluminescence – an effect that has been studied very little in the past 30+ years of RTD development, and not at room temperature. We present experiments and modeling of an n-type In0.53Ga0.47As/AlAs double-barrier RTD operating as a cross-gap light emitter at ~300K. The MBE-growth stack is shown in Fig. 1(a). A 15-μm-diam-mesa device was defined by standard planar processing including a top annular ohmic contact with a 5-μm-diam pinhole in the center to couple out enough of the internal emission for accurate free-space power measurements [4]. The emission spectra have the behavior displayed in Fig. 1(b), parameterized by bias voltage (VB). The long wavelength emission edge is at  = 1684 nm - close to the In0.53Ga0.47As bandgap energy of Ug ≈ 0.75 eV at 300 K.more »The spectral peaks for VB = 2.8 and 3.0 V both occur around  = 1550 nm (h = 0.75 eV), so blue-shifted relative to the peak of the “ideal”, bulk InGaAs emission spectrum shown in Fig. 1(b) [5]. These results are consistent with the model displayed in Fig. 1(c), whereby the broad emission peak is attributed to the radiative recombination between electrons accumulated on the emitter side, and holes generated on the emitter side by interband tunneling with current density Jinter. The blue-shifted main peak is attributed to the quantum-size effect on the emitter side, which creates a radiative recombination rate RN,2 comparable to the band-edge cross-gap rate RN,1. Further support for this model is provided by the shorter wavelength and weaker emission peak shown in Fig. 1(b) around = 1148 nm. Our quantum mechanical calculations attribute this to radiative recombination RR,3 in the RTD quantum well between the electron ground-state level E1,e, and the hole level E1,h. To further test the model and estimate quantum efficiencies, we conducted optical power measurements using a large-area Ge photodiode located ≈3 mm away from the RTD pinhole, and having spectral response between 800 and 1800 nm with a peak responsivity of ≈0.85 A/W at  =1550 nm. Simultaneous I-V and L-V plots were obtained and are plotted in Fig. 2(a) with positive bias on the top contact (emitter on the bottom). The I-V curve displays a pronounced NDR region having a current peak-to-valley current ratio of 10.7 (typical for In0.53Ga0.47As RTDs). The external quantum efficiency (EQE) was calculated from EQE = e∙IP/(∙IE∙h) where IP is the photodiode dc current and IE the RTD current. The plot of EQE is shown in Fig. 2(b) where we see a very rapid rise with VB, but a maximum value (at VB= 3.0 V) of only ≈2×10-5. To extract the internal quantum efficiency (IQE), we use the expression EQE= c ∙i ∙r ≡ c∙IQE where ci, and r are the optical-coupling, electrical-injection, and radiative recombination efficiencies, respectively [6]. Our separate optical calculations yield c≈3.4×10-4 (limited primarily by the small pinhole) from which we obtain the curve of IQE plotted in Fig. 2(b) (right-hand scale). The maximum value of IQE (again at VB = 3.0 V) is 6.0%. From the implicit definition of IQE in terms of i and r given above, and the fact that the recombination efficiency in In0.53Ga0.47As is likely limited by Auger scattering, this result for IQE suggests that i might be significantly high. To estimate i, we have used the experimental total current of Fig. 2(a), the Kane two-band model of interband tunneling [7] computed in conjunction with a solution to Poisson’s equation across the entire structure, and a rate-equation model of Auger recombination on the emitter side [6] assuming a free-electron density of 2×1018 cm3. We focus on the high-bias regime above VB = 2.5 V of Fig. 2(a) where most of the interband tunneling should occur in the depletion region on the collector side [Jinter,2 in Fig. 1(c)]. And because of the high-quality of the InGaAs/AlAs heterostructure (very few traps or deep levels), most of the holes should reach the emitter side by some combination of drift, diffusion, and tunneling through the valence-band double barriers (Type-I offset) between InGaAs and AlAs. The computed interband current density Jinter is shown in Fig. 3(a) along with the total current density Jtot. At the maximum Jinter (at VB=3.0 V) of 7.4×102 A/cm2, we get i = Jinter/Jtot = 0.18, which is surprisingly high considering there is no p-type doping in the device. When combined with the Auger-limited r of 0.41 and c ≈ 3.4×10-4, we find a model value of IQE = 7.4% in good agreement with experiment. This leads to the model values for EQE plotted in Fig. 2(b) - also in good agreement with experiment. Finally, we address the high Jinter and consider a possible universal nature of the light-emission mechanism. Fig. 3(b) shows the tunneling probability T according to the Kane two-band model in the three materials, In0.53Ga0.47As, GaAs, and GaN, following our observation of a similar electroluminescence mechanism in GaN/AlN RTDs (due to strong polarization field of wurtzite structures) [8]. The expression is Tinter = (2/9)∙exp[(-2 ∙Ug 2 ∙me)/(2h∙P∙E)], where Ug is the bandgap energy, P is the valence-to-conduction-band momentum matrix element, and E is the electric field. Values for the highest calculated internal E fields for the InGaAs and GaN are also shown, indicating that Tinter in those structures approaches values of ~10-5. As shown, a GaAs RTD would require an internal field of ~6×105 V/cm, which is rarely realized in standard GaAs RTDs, perhaps explaining why there have been few if any reports of room-temperature electroluminescence in the GaAs devices. [1] E.R. Brown,et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 58, 2291, 1991. [5] S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981). [2] M. Feiginov et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 99, 233506, 2011. [6] L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995). [3] Y. Nishida et al., Nature Sci. Reports, 9, 18125, 2019. [7] E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961). [4] P. Fakhimi, et al., 2019 DRC Conference Digest. [8] T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018). [5] S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981). [6] L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995). [7] E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961). [8] T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018).« less
  3. Abstract We treat low-energy 3 He– α elastic scattering in an effective field theory (EFT) that exploits the separation of scales in this reaction. We compute the amplitude up to next-to-next-to-leading order, developing a hierarchy of the effective-range parameters (ERPs) that contribute at various orders. We use the resulting formalism to analyse data for recent measurements at center-of-mass energies of 0.38–3.12 MeV using the scattering of nuclei in inverse kinematics (SONIK) gas target at TRIUMF as well as older data in this energy regime. We employ a likelihood function that incorporates the theoretical uncertainty due to truncation of the EFT and use Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling to obtain the resulting posterior probability distribution. We find that the inclusion of a small amount of data on the analysing power A y is crucial to determine the sign of the p-wave splitting in such an analysis. The combination of A y and SONIK data constrains all ERPs up to O ( p 4 ) in both s- and p-waves quite well. The asymptotic normalisation coefficients and s-wave scattering length are consistent with a recent EFT analysis of the capture reaction 3 He( α , γ ) 7 Be.
  4. Abstract Cross sections for the vibrational excitation and dissociative recombination (DR) of the C F 3 + ion in collisions with electrons at low scattering energies are computed using a previously-developed approach combining the normal mode approximation for the vibrational states of the target ion and the UK R -matrix code for the evaluation of the scattering matrices at fixed geometries. The obtained cross section for the DR shows excellent agreement with the experimental data from the ASTRID storage ring. Thermally-averaged rate coefficients are obtained from the cross sections for temperatures 10–3000 K.
  5. The typical energy range for charge particle interactions in stellar plasmas corresponds to a few 10s or 100s of keV. At these low energies, the cross sections are so vanishingly small that they cannot be measured directly with accelerator based experimental techniques. Thus, indirect studies of the compound structure near the threshold are used in the framework of reaction models to complement the direct data in order to extrapolate the cross section into the low energy regime. However, at the extremely small cross sections of interest, there maybe other quantum effects that modify the such extracted cross section. These may result from additional nuclear interactions associated with the threshold itself or could be due to other processes, such as electron screening. Measurements in plasma environments like at the OMEGA or National Ignition Facility facilities offer an entirely new set of experimental conditions for studying these types of reactions, often directly at the energies of interest. In this paper, we examine three reaction, 10 B( p , α ) 7 Be, 12 C( p , γ ) 13 N and 14 N( p , γ ) 15 O, which have all been measured at very low energies using accelerator based methods.more »All three reactions produce relatively long-lived radioactive nuclei, which can be collected and analyzed at plasma facilities using a variety of collection and identification techniques.« less