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Title: Does the Loop Quantum μo Scheme Permit Black Hole Formation?
We explore the way different loop quantization prescriptions affect the formation of trapped surfaces in the gravitational collapse of a homogeneous dust cloud, with particular emphasis on the so-called μo scheme in which loop quantum cosmology was initially formulated. Its undesirable features in cosmological models led to the so-called improved dynamics or the μ¯ scheme. While the jury is still out on the right scheme for black hole spacetimes, we show that as far as black hole formation is concerned, the μo scheme has another, so far unknown, serious problem. We found that in the μo scheme, no trapped surfaces would form for a nonsingular collapse of a homogeneous dust cloud in the marginally bound case unless the minimum nonzero area of the loops over which holonomies are computed or the Barbero–Immirzi parameter decreases almost four times from its standard value. It turns out that the trapped surfaces in the μo scheme for the marginally bound case are also forbidden for an arbitrary matter content as long as the collapsing interior is isometric to a spatially flat Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) spacetime. We found that in contrast to the situation in the μo scheme, black holes can form in the μ¯ scheme, more » as well as other lattice refinements with a mass gap determined by quantum geometry. « less
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  1. Abstract

    We propose a new model of the spherical symmetric quantum black hole in the reduced phase space formulation. We deparametrize gravity by coupling to the Gaussian dust which provides the material coordinates. The foliation by dust coordinates covers both the interior and exterior of the black hole. After the spherical symmetry reduction, our model is a 1 + 1 dimensional field theory containing infinitely many degrees of freedom. The effective dynamics of the quantum black hole is generated by an improved physical HamiltonianHΔ. The holonomy correction inHΔis implemented by theμ¯-scheme regularization with a Planckian area scale Δ (which often chosen as the minimal area gap in loop quantum gravity). The effective dynamics recovers the semiclassical Schwarzschild geometry at low curvature regime and resolves the black hole singularity with Planckian curvature, e.g.RμνρσRμνρσ∼ 1/Δ2. Our model predicts that the evolution of the black hole at late time reaches the charged Nariai geometry dS2×S2with Planckian radiiΔ. The Nariai geometry is stable under linear perturbations but may be unstable by nonperturbative quantum effects. Our model suggests the existence of quantum tunneling of the Nariai geometry and a scenario of black-hole-to-white-hole transition.

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  4. Abstract

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  5. Abstract

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